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Korean Journal of Psychology : General -
Vol. 40 ,
No. 4

[ Article ] | |

The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 389-413 | |

ISSN: 1229-067X (Print) | |

Print publication date 25 Dec 2021 | |

Received 06 Nov 2021 Accepted 26 Nov 2021 | |

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2021.12.40.4.389 | |

빅 데이터와 기계 학습의 시대 심리학 연구 모형의 평가 원칙과 방법 | |

이태헌 ^{†}
| |

중앙대학교 심리학과 | |

Principles and methods for model assessment in psychological research in the era of big-data and machine learning | |

Taehun Lee ^{†}
| |

Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University | |

Correspondence to : ^{†}이태헌, 중앙대학교 사회과학대학 심리학과 부교수, (155-756) 서울시 동작구 흑석로 84 Tel: 02-820-5124, E-mail: lee0267@cau.ac.kr | |

Funding Information ▼ |

초록

본 논문에서는 계량 심리학 분야에서 지난 수 십 년 동안 꾸준히 논의가 진행되어 왔던 모형 추정과 평가의 원칙을 심리학 연구자들에게 소개하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 계량 심리학 분야에서 진행된 논의의 핵심은 1) 후보 모형들은 참 모형(true model)이 아니라 근사 모형(approximating model)이며, 2) 데이터 크기가 무한히 커지더라도 참 모형과 근사 모형 간 불일치는 사라지는 것은 아니기 때문에, 3) 여러 후보 모형 중 참 모형과의 불일치가 가장 낮은 것으로 추정되는 근사 모형을 선정하는 것이 바람직하다는 것이다. 이러한 모형 선정의 원리는 4차 산업 혁명의 시대, 여러 학문 분야에 걸쳐 그 영역을 확장하고 있는 기계 학습(machine learning) 분야에서 채택하고 있는 모형 평가의 원칙과 동일함을 설명하였다. 즉, 기계 학습 분야에서는 훈련(training) 과정에 노출되지 않았던 새로운 사례에서 보이는 모형의 성능인 일반화 혹은 예측 오차(generalization or prediction error)를 추정함으로써 모형을 선정하는데, 이는 계량 심리학 분야에서 근사모형과 참모형의 불일치 추정량인 총체적 오차(overall discrepancy)를 추정함으로써 모형을 선정해야 한다는 원리와 동일함을 설명하였다. 본 논문의 두 번째 목적은, 이러한 모형 선정의 원칙에 대한 이해를 바탕으로, 현재 심리학 분야에서 주어진 데이터에 대한 “철저한” 분석 관행이 초래하는 과적합(overfitting) 문제와 그 해결 방안을 논의하는 데 있다. 특히, 기계 학습 분야에서 가정 널리 사용되고 있으며, 계량 심리학 분야에서도 오래전부터 논의가 되어온(Mosier, 1951) 교차-타당성 입증법(cross-validation)을 일반화 오차의 추정량이라는 관점에서 소개하고 사용을 당부하였다.

AbstractThe objective of the present article is to explain principles of estimation and assessment for statistical models in psychological research. The principles have indeed been actively discussed over the past few decades in the field of mathematical and quantitative psychology. The essence of the discussion is as follows: 1) candidate models are to be considered not the true model but approximating models, 2) discrepancy between a candidate model and the true model will not disappear even in the population, and therefore 3) it would be best to select the approximating model exhibiting the smallest discrepancy with the true model. The discrepancy between the true model and a candidate model estimated in the sample has been referred to as overall discrepancy in quantitative psychology. In the field of machine learning, models are assessed in light of the extent to which performance of a model is generalizable to the new unseen samples, without being limited to the training samples. In machine learning, a model’s ability to generalize is referred to as the generalization error or prediction error. The present article elucidates the point that the principle of model assessment based on overall discrepancy advocated in quantitative psychology is identical to the model assessment principle based on generalization/prediction error firmly adopted in machine learning. Another objective of the present article is to help readers appreciate the fact that questionable data analytic practices widely tolerated in psychology, such as HARKing (Kerr, 1998) and QRP (Simmons et al., 2011), have been likely causes of the problem known as overfitting in individual studies, which in turn, have collectively resulted in the recent debates over replication crisis in psychology. As a remedy against the questionable practices, this article reintroduces cross-validation methods, whose initial discussion dates back at least to the 1950s in psychology (Mosier, 1951), by couching them in terms of estimators of the generalization/prediction error in the hope of reducing the overfitting problems in psychological research.

Keywords: overfitting, generalization error, training error, cross-validation, bias-variance tradeoff 키워드: 과적합, 일반화 오차, 훈련 오차, 교차-타당성 입증법, 편향-분산 균형 |

Acknowledgments

이 성과는 정부(과학기술정보통신부)의 재원으로 한국연구재단의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구임 (No.2020R1H1A1102581).

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