Korean Journal of Psychology : General

理쒓렐샇 寃깋

Korean Journal of Psychology : General - Vol. 40, No. 2

[ Article ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 40, No. 2, pp.155-185
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Jun 2021
Received 03 May 2021 Accepted 27 May 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2021.

직장에서의 정당한 성평등에 대한 믿음 척도의 개발 및 타당화
최재광1) ; 유제근2) ; 송원영
1)최재광, 건양대학교 상담심리학과, 박사과정 (clinicalpsy@kakao.com)
2)유제근, 건양대학교 마음행복연구소, 수련생 (fbwprms123@naver.com)

Development and Validation of the Belief in a Just Gender Equality Scale in the Workplace
Jaegwang Choi1) ; Jegeun Yu2) ; Wonyoung Song
1)Konyang University
2)Happy Mind Research Institute
Konyang University
Correspondence to : 송원영, 건양대학교 심리상담치료학과, 교수, 건양대학교 마음행복연구소 소장, (32992) 충청남도 논산시 대학로 121, Tel: 041-730-5414, E-mail: 1058@paran.com

Funding Information ▼


이 연구는 성인을 대상으로 개인이 경험하거나 지각하는 정당한 성평등에 대한 믿음에 대해 정의하고 이를 직장 내에서 측정할 수 있는 신뢰롭고 타당한 척도를 개발하기 위해 진행하였다. 정당한 세상에 대한 믿음을 바탕으로 성평등에 대해 4개의 요인을 상정하고 이를 측정하는 53개의 문항을 제작하였으며 전문가의 내용타당도 검증을 통해 46개의 예비문항을 선정하였다. 1차 검증은 일반성인 112명을 대상으로 수집한 자료에 대해 신뢰도 분석과 탐색적 요인분석을 실시하여 4개의 하위 영역에 부합한 22개의 문항을 확정하였다. 2차 검증에서는 20~40대 직장인 250명을 대상으로 조사를 진행하였고 수집된 자료를 통해 확인적 요인분석, 신뢰도 검증, 타당도 검증을 진행하였다. 분석결과, 이 척도는 성평등에 대한 분배공정성의 개인적 믿음, 성평등에 대한 분배공정성의 일반적 믿음, 성평등에 대한 절차공정성의 개인적 믿음, 성평등에 대한 절차공정성의 일반적 믿음의 4요인에 22문항으로 구성하는 것이 타당한 것으로 나타났다. 각 하위요인별 내적 합치도는 .83∼.92로 높은 신뢰도가 나타났고, 검사-재검사 신뢰도는 .52∼.85의 상관계수를 보이고 있어 시간적 안정성도 가지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 타당도를 확인하기 위해 정당한 성평등에 대한 믿음 척도, 역학연구센터 우울척도, 남녀평등의식 검사(직업생활영역)와의 상관분석을 실시하였고 모든 척도와 유의한 상관이 보고되었다. 측정모형을 확인하기 위해 확인적 요인분석을 진행하였고 양호한 적합도가 나타났다. 하위요소와 문항구성, 그리고 검증과정에 대한 시사점 및 연구의 한계점, 향후 연구를 위한 제안 등을 논의하였다.


This study was conducted to define the just gender equality experienced or perceived by an individual in adults and to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure it in the workplace. Based on the belief in a just world, four factors for gender equality were assumed and 53 questions were produced to measure them, and 46 preliminary questions were selected through content validity verification by related experts. In the first verification, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed on the data collected for 112 adults, and 22 items that corresponded to the four sub-areas were confirmed. In the second verification, a survey was conducted on 250 employees in their 20s to 40s, and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability verification, and validity verification were conducted through the collected data. The analysis found that the measure was reasonable to consist of 22 questions in four factors: Distributive justice to gender equality for self(DJGE-self), Distributive justice to gender equality for others(DJGE-others), Procedural justice to gender equality for self(PJGE-self), Procedural justice to gender equality for others(PJGE-others). The internal consistency of each sub-factor was, .83∼.92, showing high reliability, and the test-retest reliability (n=42) showed a correlation coefficient of .52~.85, indicating that it has temporal stability. To confirm the validity, correlation analysis was conducted with Belief in a Just World Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Korean Gender Egalitarianism Scale(vocational factor), and significant correlations with all scales were reported. To confirm the measurement model, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and a good fit was found. Sub-elements and item composition, implications for the verification process, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research were discussed.

Keywords: Belief in a Just Gender Equality, Gender Equality, Belief in a Just World, Workplace, Fairness
키워드: 정당한 성평등에 대한 믿음, 성평등, 정당한 세상에 대한 믿음, 직장, 공정성


이 논문의 본조사는 ㈜서던포스트의 지원을 받아 진행된 것임.

1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology(Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). Academic Press.
2. Ahn, S. S., Kim, H. S., & Ahn, M. Y. (2005). A Study on the Development and Validation of Korean Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 19(2), 39-66.
3. Ahn, S. S., Kim, I. S., Kim, G. M., & Lee, S. M. (2016). Development of a Revised Korean Gender Egalitarianism Scale (R-KGES) (1). Korean Women’s Development Institute.
4. Baek, K. Y. (2019). Counselors’ Belief in a Just World for Others and Attitudes toward Racial/Ethnic Minorities: The Mediating Role of Attribution of Blame. The Korean Journal of Counseling And Psychotherapy, 31(4), 1289-1320.
5. Becker, J. C., & Swim, J. K. (2011). Seeing the unseen: Attention to daily encounters with sexism as way to reduce sexist beliefs. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(2), 227-242.
6. Beere, C. A., King, D. W., Beere, D. B., & King, L. A. (1984). The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale: A measure of attitudes toward equality between the sexes. Sex Roles, 10(7), 563-576.
7. Bosson, J. K., Pinel, E. C., & Vandello, J. A. (2010). The emotional impact of ambivalent sexism: Forecasts versus real experiences. Sex Roles, 62(7), 520-531.
8. Choi, H. J., & Shin, H. J. (2018). The relationship between belief in a just world and anxiety: Testing a moderated mediation model of cognitive flexibility and entrapment. The Korean Journal of Social And Personality Psychology, 32(3), 19-38.
9. Chon, K. K., & Rhee, M. K. (1992). Preliminary Development of Korean Version of CES-D. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 11(1), 65-76.
10. Correia, I., & Dalbert, C. (2007). Belief in a just world, justice concerns, and well-being at Portuguese schools. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(4), 421-437.
11. Correia, I., Alves, H., Sutton, R., Ramos, M., Gouveia-Pereira, M., & Vala, J. (2012). When do people derogate or psychologically distance themselves from victims? Belief in a just world and ingroup identification. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(6), 747-752.
12. Correia, I., Batista, M. T., & Lima, M. L. (2009). Does the belief in a just world bring happiness? Causal relationships among belief in a just world, life satisfaction and mood. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(4), 220-227.
13. Correia, I., Kamble, S. V., & Dalbert, C. (2009). Belief in a just world and well-being of bullies, victims and defenders: A study with Portuguese and Indian students. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 22(5), 497-508.
14. Dalbert, C. (1997). Coping with an unjust fate: The case of structural unemployment. Social Justice Research, 10(2), 175-189.
15. Dalbert, C. (1999). The world is more just for me than generally: About the personal belief in a just world scale’s validity. Social Justice Research, 12(2), 79-98.
16. Dzuka, J., & Dalbert, C. (2007). Student violence against teachers: Teachers’ well-being and the belief in a just world. European Psychologist, 12, 253–260.
17. Fischer, A. R., & Holz, K. B. (2007). Perceived discrimination and women’s psychological distress: The roles of collective and personal self-esteem. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(2), 154-164.
18. Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 264-273.
19. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382-388.
20. Furnham, A. (2003). Belief in a just world: Research progress over the past decade. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(5), 795-817.
21. Go, H., Kim, N. Y., Kim, C. Y., Park, S. H., Choi, S. Y., & Choi, J. H. (2020). Development and Validation of the Gender Discrimination Event Scale: Focus on Single Women in Office. 2020 Korean Psychological Association Annual Conference Program & Abstract, 229-229.
22. Heo, S., & Eam, J. Y. (2017). Empirical Investigation of the Glass Ceiling Effect for Women Employees: Comparison between Capital and Non-capital Regions. Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 30(5), 1813-1836.
23. Hong, K. W., Kim, M. S., & Han, Y. S. (2003). The Effect of Gender Identity, Satisfaction with one’s Gender Group and Collective Self-esteem on Gender Egalitarianism. Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 8(1), 19-33.
24. Hong, S. H. (2000). The Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Fit Indices in Structural Equation Modeling and Their Rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 161-177.
25. Jeong, J. K. (1990). Korean Sex Role Inventory (KSRI). The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 5(1), 82-92.
26. Jeong, S., & Lee. S. (2020). The Relationship between Bullying Victimization and Displaced Aggression among Male Middle School Students: The Double Mediating Effects of Rejection Sensitivity and Male Gender Role Conflict and Moderated Mediating Effects of Non-judgmental Disposition. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33(2), 49-68.
27. Jo, E. K., & Park, J. S. (2020). Differences of Victim Blaming in Rape and Assault: Mediating Effects of Ambivalent Sexism and Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence. The Korean Journal of Social And Personality Psychology, 34(1), 45-66.
28. Kang, J. H. (2017). Gender Discrimination at Work among Women Police Officers in Korea. Korean Police Studies Review, 16(3), 3-28.
29. Keith, T. Z. (2014). Multiple regression and beyond: An introduction to multiple regression and structural equation modeling. Routledge.
30. Kim, A. Y., Kim, Y. J., & Bae, Y. J. (2018). The Effect of Female University Students’ Sex Discrimination Experience on the Disordered Eating Behavior: The Role of Feminism Attitude and Self-Esteem. 2018 Korean Psychological Association Annual Conference Program & Abstract, 453-453.
31. Kim, E. H. (2009). A Study on the Perceived Glass Ceiling and Job Attitude for Female Public Servants in Local Government. Korean Public Administration Quarterly, 21(4), 1337-1368.
32. Kim, E. H. (2018). Development and validation of Everyday Gender Microaggression Scale. The Korean Journal of Culture And Social Issues, 24(4), 593-614.
33. Kim, E. H., & Jeon, J. W. (2019). Belief in a Just World: Differences in Self-esteem, Depression, Negative Attitudes Toward Homosexuals and Classism Based on Personal Belief and General Belief. Human Understanding, 40(1), 1-21.
34. Kim, E. H., & Kim, H. R. (2015). The Relationship between Life Stresses on Hwa-Byung among Married Women: A Mediated Moderation Effect of Beliefs in a Just World through Internal-External Locus of Control. Korea Journal of Counseling, 16(5), 39-53.
35. Kim, E. H., Kim, D. Y., Park, H. S., Kim, S. Y., & Kim, J. S. (2016). The relationship between belief in a just world and hwa-byung symptoms: Distributive and procedural justice beliefs. Korean Journal of Counseling, 17(5), 24-45.
36. Kim, E. H., Kim, D. Y., Park, H. S., Kim, S. Y., & Kim, J. S. (2017). Validation of the Korean Version of the Belief in a Jest World Scale (K-BJWS). The Korean Journal of Counseling and Pshchotherapy, 29(3), 689-710.
37. Kim, E. H., Kim, J. S., Park, H. S., Kim, D. Y., & Kim, S. Y. (2017). The experience of sexism in the workplace, belief in a just world, and depression: Scale development and mediating effect analysis. The Korean Journal of Women Psychology, 22(4), 643-667.
38. Kim, E. H., Kim, K. H., Park, H. S., & Jung, B. H. (2018). The moderating effect of belief in a just world on the relationship between perceived gender discrimination and self-esteem: Based on Worldview Verification Theory. Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 23(3), 409-429.
39. Kim, J. H., Kim, J. H., & Kim, J. Y. (2019). The Mediating Effect of Army Officer Leadership Competencies on the Relationship Between Gender Role Conflict and Soldier Adjustment. The Korean Journal of Counseling And Psychotherapy, 31(2), 527-547.
40. Kim, M. S., & Park, S. S. (2015). The influence of organizational justice perceptions on Organizational Commitment in the female correctional official - Focused on the Mediating role of job satisfaction. Corrections Review, 66, 145-168.
41. Kim, S. H., & Shin, D. E. (2014). Gender Discrimination at Korean Workplace. Korean Journal of Sociology, 48(4), 91-125.
42. Kim, Y. H., & Jeong, K. A. (2000). Development of a Korean Gender Egalitarianism Scale (KQES). The Korean Journal of Social And Personality Psychology, 14(1), 23-44.
43. Kim, Y. O., & Yon, K. J. (2018). The Relation Between Gender Microaggressions And Psychological Distress Among Women In Their 20s And 30s: Moderated Mediation Effect Of Anger And Feminist Identity Dimensions. Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 23(3), 499-523.
44. Klonoff, E. A., & Landrine, H. (1995). The Schedule of Sexist Events: A measure of lifetime and recent sexist discrimination in women’s lives. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19(4), 439-470.
45. Koo, T. H., & Jang, J. Y. (2019). The Effect of Belief in a Just World on College Students Job-Seeking Anxiety: Dual Mediation Effects of Career Locus of Control and Cognitive Flexibility. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 26(12), 123-145.
46. Korea International Cooperation Agency(KOICA). (2010). Official Development Assistance Glossary. https://www.koica.go.kr/koica_kr/898/subview.do
47. Korean Women’s Development Institute. (2016). 2016 Gender Equality Survey Analysis Research, Seoul: Ministry of Gender Equality and Family.
48. Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
49. Lee, J. H., Han, Y. H., Sung, H. J., & In. J. (2007). The Glass Ceiling in the Korean Public Service. Journal of Korean Women’s Studies, 23(3), 79-115.
50. Lerner, M. J. (1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. Plenum Press.
51. Leventhal, G. S. (1980). What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships. In K. J. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, & R. H. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research (pp. 27-55). Plenum.
52. Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. Plenum.
53. Lipkusa, I. M., Dalbert, C., & Siegler, I. C. (1996). The importance of distinguishing the belief in a just world for self versus for others: Implications for psychological well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(7), 666-677.
54. Lucas, T. (2009). Justifying outcomes versus processes: Procedural and distributive justice beliefs as predictors of positive and negative affectivity. Current Psychology, 28(4), 249-265.
55. Lucas, T., & Wendorf, C. A. (2012). Perceived justice and worker well-being. How and for whom do unethical work practices matter? In R. A. Giacalone, & M. D. Promislo (Eds.), Handbook of unethical work behavior: Implications for individual well-being (pp. 237-252). M.E. Sharpe.
56. Lucas, T., Alexander, S., Firestone, I., & LeBreton, J. M. (2007). Development and initial validation of a procedural and distributive just world measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 71-82.
57. McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992). Distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3), 626-637.
58. Mudrack, P. E. (2005). An outcomes-based approach to just world beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(4), 817-830.
59. Nadal, K. L. (2009). Preventing racial, ethnic, gender, sexual minority, disability and religious microaggressions. Recommendations for promoting positive mental health. Prevention in Counseling Psychology: Theory, Research, Practice, & Training, 2, 22-27.
60. Oh, S. M. & Han, T. Y. (2017). The Effect of Work-Family Conflict of Married Workers on Proactive Career Behaviors: Moderation Effects of Evaluation Justice & Gender. Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 22(4), 569-591.
61. Olson, J. M., & Hafer, C. L. (2001). Tolerance of personal deprivation. In J. T. Jost, & B. Major (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives of ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (pp. 157-175). Cambridge University Press.
62. Otto, K., Boos, A., Dalbert, C., Schöps, D., & Hoyer, J. (2006). Posttraumatic symptoms, depression, and anxiety of flood victims: The impact of the belief in a just world. Personality and individual differences, 40(5), 1075-1084.
63. Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin, 135(4), 531-554.
64. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied psychological measurement, 1(3), 385-401.
65. Riger, S., Stokes, J., Raja, S., & Sullivan, M. (1997). Measuring perceptions of the work environment for female faculty. The Review of Higher Education, 21(1), 63-78.
66. Rosenthal, J. A. (2001). Statistics and data interpretation for the helping professions. Brooks/Cole.
67. Rubin, Z., & Peplau, A. (1973). Belief in a Just World and Reactions to Another’s Lot: A Study of Participants in the National Draft Lottery 1. Journal of Social Issues, 29(4), 73-93.
68. Sanders-Phillips, K. (2009). Racial discrimination: A continuum of violence exposure for children of color. Clinical child and family psychology review, 12(2), 174-195.
69. Sendi, F., Ehtesham Zadeh, P., Asgari, P., & Kafie, M. (2018). The Relationship between Belief in a Just World and Symptoms of Psychological Disorders in Burn Patients: The Intermediate Role of Coping Strategies. International Journal of Psychology (IPA), 12(1), 186-207.
70. Shim, M. H., & Endo, Y. M. (2013). Stereotypes toward Gender Roles, Sexism and Attitudes toward Military Service among Koreans. The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 18(3), 365-385.
71. Shin, H. J. (2018). Beliefs in a Just World and Depression: Mediating Effects of Optimism and Cognitive Flexibility. The Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 18, 413-437.
72. Son, Y. K., & Lee, S. Y. (2020). Relationships among distributive and procedural justice beliefs for the self, future time perspective, and the mental well-being of university students. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33(1), 65-84.
73. Song, R. R., & Lee, M. A. (2012). Gender role attitude and depressive symptoms: Comparisons across gender and age groups. Korea Journal of Population Studies, 35(3), 87-116.
74. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1973). A short version of the Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 2(4), 219-220.
75. Stevens, J. (1996). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum.
76. Stokes, J., Riger, S., & Sullivan, M. (1995). Measuring perceptions of the working environment for women in corporate settings. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19(4), 533-549.
77. Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(2), 199.
78. Swim, J. K., Hayers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., & Ferguson, M. J. (2001). Everyday sexism: Evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues, 57(1), 31-53.
79. Terwee, C. B., Mokkink, L. B., Knol, D. L., Ostelo, R. W., Bouter, L. M., & de Vet, H. C. (2012). Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Quality of life research, 21(4), 651-657.
80. Thibaut, J. W., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Erlbaum.
81. Tougas, F., Brown, R., Beaton, A. M., & Joly, S. (1995). Neosexism: Plus ça change, plus c’est pareil. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 21(8), 842-849.
82. Tyler, T. R., & Bies, R. J. (1990). Beyond formal procedures: the interpersonal context of procedural justice. In J. Carroll (Ed.), Applied social psychology and organizational settings (pp. 77-98). Erlbaum.
83. Tyler, T. R., & Smith, H. J. (1998). The handbook of social psychology, vol. 2. Social justice and social movements. McGraw-Hill.
84. Walster, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity: Theory and research. Allyn and Bacon.
85. Weiss, H. M., Suckow, K., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). Effects of justice conditions on discrete emotions. Journal of applied psychology, 84(5), 786-794.
86. Yang, E. J., Noh, H. L., Park, J. H., Jeon, H. J., & Shim, E. J. (2019). Moderated Mediation Effect of Positive Relationships in the Relationship between Perceived Injustice and Suicide Risk through Depression: Gender Analyses. Korean Journal of Counseling And Psychotherapy, 31(2), 477-501.