Korean Journal of Psychology : General

理쒓렐샇 寃깋

Korean Journal of Psychology : General - Vol. 40, No. 1

[ Article ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 40, No. 1, pp.75-104
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Mar 2021
Received 04 Feb 2021 Accepted 06 Mar 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2021.3.40.1.75

한국어 문장처리에서 청년과 노인의 실시간 인지자원 할당 양상과 읽기수행 비교
문선현1) ; 최원일2) ; 노수림
1)충남대학교 심리학과, 박사과정 (ssunh0131@gmail.com)
2)광주과학기술원 기초교육학부, 교수 (wichoi@gist.ac.kr)

Comparison of Cognitive Resource Allocation Patterns and Reading Performance Between Younger and Older Adults
Sun Hyun Moon1) ; Wonil Choi2) ; Soo Rim Noh
1)Chungnam National University
2)Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
Correspondence to : 노수림, 충남대학교 심리학과 교수, 대전광역시 유성구 대학로 99 Tel: 042-821-6365, E-mail: srnoh@cnu.ac.kr

Funding Information ▼

초록

문장의미 표상은 여러 수준에서 형성되며, 노화에 따라 특히 어휘의 개념과 명제적 아이디어를 표상하는 텍스트기저(textbase) 형성 능력 수준이 감퇴하면서 문장이해와 기억능력이 저하되는 것으로 알려져 있다. 따라서 이러한 어려움을 보완하기 위해 문장의 주요 구문 경계 지점과 문장 말미에서의 개념통합에 인지자원을 더 할당하는 노력(‘마무리’ 전략)은 노인의 문장이해와 기억 수행에 정적인 영향을 미치는 읽기 전략으로 제안되어 왔다. 이에 본 연구는 한국어 문장처리과정에서 청년과 노인의 단어 및 텍스트기저 수준에서의 표상처리를 위한 실시간 인지자원 할당 양상을 비교하고, 문장이해와 기억 수행 능력을 평가하여 문장처리능력에서 노화의 영향을 살펴보고자 하였다. 청년(n=60)과 노인(n=61) 참가자는 문장이해와 회상을 위한 두 읽기조건에 따라, 목표문장 총 48개를 창문-이동형 자기조절읽기(moving-window self-paced reading)의 방식으로 읽고 이해 및 회상과제를 수행하였다. 참가자들의 어절별 읽기 시간을 측정하고 단어(철자 해독 및 어휘 접속)와 텍스트기저(개념 처리 및 문장 주요 구문지점과 종결지점에서의 개념통합) 표상 수준에 따른 인지자원 할당 양상을 살펴보았다. 문장 이해도는 목표문장의 내용 질문에 대한 정확 반응률로 측정하고, 문장 회상률은 목표문장의 총 명제 중 정확히 회상한 명제의 비율로 측정하였다. 결과는 첫째, 단어 수준 처리에서 노인은 청년에 비해 단어 수준에서의 인지자원 할당이 크게 나타났고 텍스트기저 수준에서는 청년과 노인 공통으로 이해보다 회상조건에서 문장 내 개념통합을 위한 인지자원 할당이 더 컸다. 하지만 청년은 회상조건의 문장 말미에서 인지자원 할당이 크게 나타난 반면, 노인은 청년에 비해 훨씬 적었으며 두 읽기 조건 간 인지자원 할당의 차이를 보이지 않았다. 둘째, 노인은 청년보다 문장 이해도와 명제 회상률이 낮았는데 그중 회상 수행이 더욱 저조하였다. 셋째, 문장 내 개념 통합을 위한 인지자원 할당과 노인의 문장이해 수행 간에 정적 상관이 있었으며, 청년과 노인 모두 문장 내 그리고 문장 말미에서의 개념통합을 위한 인지자원 할당과 문장회상 수행 간 정적 상관이 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 청년과 노인의 문장처리에서 의미표상을 위한 인지자원 할당 양상에 차이가 있으며, 텍스트기저 표상 처리와 관련하여 개념통합을 위한 마무리 전략이 노인의 문장이해와 회상 수행을 향상 시키는 데 유용한 전략이 될 수 있음을 시사한다.

Abstract

The understanding and meaning of text arise from the construction of multiple levels of representation. It is well-documented in particular that the processes at the level of textbase, the propositional representation of the semantic content of the text, undergo age-related declines. To alleviate this difficulty in older adults, it has been suggested that greater effort be allocated to textbase processes, such as conceptual integration at major syntactic (major noun phrases, clauses) and sentence boundaries (known as “wrap-up”), as a compensatory reading strategy. The present study examines age-related differences in the patterns of attention allocation during Korean sentence processing as well as in sentence comprehension and recall performance. Sixty younger and sixty-one older adults read two-sentence passages covering various topics for subsequent comprehension and recall. Clause-by-clause reading times were measured, and the reading times were decomposed from index attentional allocation to word- and textbase-level processes using regression analysis. The results were as follows: First, older adults showed greater allocation of attention to the word-level processes for orthographic decoding and lexical access than did younger adults; in the textbase-level processes, both age groups were more likely to wrap up at an intrasentence boundary when reading for recall than for comprehension. However, older adults showed reduced wrap-up at the sentence boundary than younger adults did; additionally, unlike younger adults, who disproportionately increased the resources they allocated to sentence wrap-up when reading for recall than for comprehension, older adults did not show any such difference between reading conditions. Second, older adults demonstrated lower levels of comprehension and recall, especially recall performance, than younger adults. Third, resources allocated to the intrasentence boundary wrap-up were positively associated with sentence comprehension in older adults, and resources allocated to wrap-up at the intrasentence and sentence boundary were positively associated with sentence recall in both younger and older adults. These results suggest that older and younger adults exhibit different patterns of resource allocation during sentence processing, and that pausing frequently within sentences for conceptual integration plays a beneficial role in sentence comprehension and recall for older adults.


Keywords: Sentence processing, Cognitive resource allocation, Comprehension, Recall, Aging
키워드: 문장처리, 인지자원할당, 이해, 회상, 노화

Acknowledgments

이 논문은 문선현의 석사학위 논문을 수정 보완한 것임.본 연구는 한국연구재단 SSK사업의 지원을 받아 수행되었음(NRF-2017S1A3A2066319).본 연구의 명제분석에 도움을 주신 윤홍옥 교수님(제주대학교 영어영문학과)과 세심하고 유익한 조언을 해주신 심사 위원분들께 감사를 표합니다.


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