Korean Journal of Psychology : General

理쒓렐샇 寃깋

Korean Journal of Psychology : General - Vol. 39 , No. 2

[ Regular issue ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 39, No. 2, pp.283-305
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Jun 2020
Received 20 Apr 2020 Accepted 07 May 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2020.6.39.2.283

자기애적 취약성과 우울: 사회적 거절의 조절효과
이세라1) ; 신현균 ; 문찬기2)
1)전남대학교 심리학과 강사 (shawbian1107@gmail.com)
2)Leeds Beckett University 심리학과 교수 (C.Moon@leedsbeckett.ac.uk)

The Moderating Effect of Social Rejection on the Relationship between Narcissistic Vulnerability and Depression
Sera Lee1) ; Hyun-kyun Shin ; Chanki Moon2)
1)Department of Psychology, Chonnam National University
2)Department of Psychology, Leeds Beckett University
Correspondence to : 전남대학교 심리학과 교수, 광주광역시 북구 용봉로 77 전남대학교 사회과학대학 심리학과 E-mail: shk2004@chonnam.ac.kr


초록

본 연구는 병리적 자기애의 특성 중 하나인 자기애적 취약성과 우울 간 관계에서 사회적 거절의 조절효과를 검증하였다. 즉 자기애적 취약성과 우울의 관계가 사회적 거절 처치에 따라 다르게 나타날 것이라고 가정하였다. 이를 위해 5차례의 사전 연구를 거쳐 ‘영상을 통한 첫인상 효과 연구’라는 실험 상황을 사회적 거절과 이에 대비되는 사회적 비거절 처치로 조작하였다. 자발적으로 실험에 참여한 대학생 152명은 사전 설문(자기애적 취약성) 작성 이후 무선적으로 사회적 거절/비거절 처치 조건에 각각 76명씩 할당되었고, 각 조건의 모든 참가자들은 영상을 촬영한 후 가상의 평가단으로부터 사회적 거절과 비거절에 해당하는 평가를 받았다. 분석 결과, 가설대로 사회적 거절 처치 조건에서만 자기애적 취약성이 우울을 유의미하게 정적으로 예측하였다. 본 연구는 기존의 사회적 거절 실험 패러다임을 보완하여 새로운 사회적 거절 실험 절차를 마련한 후, 이 실험을 통해 자기애적 취약성과 우울의 관계를 검증했다는 것에 의의가 있다. 또한 본 연구의 결과는, 자기애적 취약성이 특징적일수록 대인관계 상황에서 더 쉽게 우울감을 느끼는 원인이 타인에게 긍정적인 반응만을 요구하는 비현실적인 기대에서 비롯될 가능성을 시사한다. 마지막으로, 사회적 거절 주체들의 사회적/경제적 수준, 서열 등을 고려하여 실험에 반영한다면 자기애적 취약성을 포함한 병리적 자기애의 심리적 부적응에 대한 사회적/문화적 이해가 확대될 것으로 예상된다.

Abstract

This study examined the moderating effect of social rejection on the relationship between vulnerability, which is one of the characteristics of pathological narcissism, and depression. Before the main experiment, five preliminary studies were conducted to make a new experimental paradigm, ‘first impression effect study with video’, to manipulate social rejection and non-rejection. In the main experiment, 152 participants from a university answered a questionnaire about narcissistic vulnerability and were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions(social rejection[N=76] and non-rejection[N=76]). The results showed that narcissistic vulnerability predicted depression significantly and positively only in the condition of social rejection. This study has significant implications for the development of an new social rejection experiment procedure by making up for the existing social rejection experiment paradigm, as well as for extending the understanding of the relationship between narcissistic vulnerability and depression considering the role of social rejection. In addition, the findings of this study suggest that people with narcissistic vulnerabilities are more likely to feel depressed in interpersonal situations due to unrealistic expectatioons that require only positive responses from others. Lastly, social and cultural understanding of the psychological maladjustment of pathological narcissism, including narcissistic vulnerability, can be expanded if social and economic status and power of social rejections are considered in this experiment.


Keywords: narcissistic vulnerability, depression, social rejection, moderating effect
키워드: 자기애적 취약성, 우울, 사회적 거절, 조절효과

Acknowledgments

본 논문은 이세라의 박사학위 논문의 일부를 수정/보완한 것임.


References
1. Akhtar, S., Thomson, J. A. (1982). Overview: Narcissistic personality disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 12-20.
2. Atlas, G. D., & Them, M. A. (2008). Narcissism and sensitivity to criticism: A preliminary investigation. Current Psychology, 27, 62-76.
3. Baek, S. H., & Hyun, M. H. (2008). Hostility, Anger Experience and Anger Expression in Overt and Covert Narcissists. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 101-107.
4. Besser, A., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2010). The influence of pathological narcissism on emotional and motivational responses to negative events: The roles of visibility and concern about humiliation. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 520-534.
5. Bettencourt, B., Talley, A., Benjamin, A., & Valentine, J. (2016). Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: A meta-Analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 751-777.
6. Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 219-229.
7. Campbell, W. K., Foster, J. D. (2007). The narcissistic self: Background, an extended agency model, and ongoing controversies. C., Sedikides & A. J. Spencer (Eds.) The self (pp. 115-138) New York, NY: Psychology Press.
8. Cain, N. M., Pincus, A. L., & Ansell, E. B. (2008). Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 638-656.
9. Cho, E. Y., & Gwak, E. H. (2010). Anger and Anger Expression Patterns of Covert and Overt Narcissistic Tendencies after getting Failure Feedback. The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Psychology, 19, 582-599.
10. Cho, S. S., & Choi, H. S. (2007). Effects of Social Exclusion/Inclusion and Causal Attribution upon Social Information Processing and Punishment Behavior. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 131-151.
11. Choi, J. S., & Yang, J. W. (2018). Social Exclusion and Facial Emotion Recognition in Social Anxiety. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 18-30.
12. DeWall, C. N., Pond Jr, R. S., Campbell, W. K., & Twenge, J. M. (2011). Tuning in to psychological change: Linguistic markers of psychological traits and emotions over time in popular US song lyrics. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 200-207.
13. Eo, Y. j., & Lee, Y. H. (2017). The Influence of Bully’s Psychopathic Tendency on the Level of Empathy in Middle & High School: Focusing on the Change after Exclusive Experience. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 66-77.
14. Eon, J. H., Kim, N. H., & Jeon, W. Y. (2016). Social Exclusion and Food Choices. Korean Psychology Association, 279. [Abstracts]
15. Gang, S. H., & Chung, N. W. (2002). A Study on the Development and Validation of the Covert Narcissism Scale. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 14, 969-990.
16. Han, S. J., & Kwon, S. M. (2010). Perceptual Sensitivity of Narcissists to Self-Relevant Information. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 1135-1143.
17. Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: Regression-based Approach. New York, NY. Guilford Pub.
18. Hendin, H. M., & Cheek, J. M. (1997). Assessing hypersensitive narcissism: A reexamination of Murray's Narcism Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 588-599.
19. Hope, D. A., Burns, J. A., Hayes, S. A., Herbert, J. D., & Warner, M. D. (2010). Automatic thoughts and cognitive restructuring in cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 1-12.
20. Hwang, S. H., & Jo, S. H. (2015). Screening Criteria of Pathological Narcissism: Identifying Cutoff Score of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 27, 275-303.
21. Kim, E. H., & Seo, S. G. (2013). The Mediating Effects of Maladaptive Coping between Covert Narcissism and Hostility. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 32, 533-548.
22. Kim, J. H. (1987). Relations of Perceived Stress, Cognitive Set, and Coping Behaviors to Depression (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
23. Kim, J. H., Cho Y. R., & Lee, M. K. (2000). A Comparative Study on the Self-Concepts of University Students with Social Anxiety and Depression. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19, 1-15.
24. Kim, J. S. (2010). The Effects of Emotional Regulation strategies for Social Exclusion on the Emotional Responses and Eating Behavior of College Female Students with who have High Binge Eating Tendency (Unpublished Master Dissertation). Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
25. Kim, J. Y., & Jeon, W. Y. (2014). The Influence of Social Exclusion on Weight Perception. Korean Psychology Association, 322. [Abstracts]
26. Kim, M. J., & Kim, E. J. (2018). The Relation between Covert Narcissism and Tajin Kyofusho symptoms: Sequential Mediating effects of Paranoid Ideation and Social Isolation. Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 24, 637-655.
27. Kim, Y. Y., Lee, E. J., & Kim, B. J. (2011). The relation among narcissistic personality, depression, and psychopathy: Focus on gender differences. The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 16, 97-113.
28. Leary, M. R. (2010). Affiliation, acceptance, and belonging. Handbook of Social Psychology, 2, 864-897.
29. Lee, J. D., Seo, S. K., & Lee, H. J. (2007). Self-Concept Clarity and Negative Emotion in Young Adults with Covert, Overt Narcissistic Feature. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 463-477.
30. Lee, J. W., & Jang, E. Y. (2011). Longitudinal Effects of Self-Enhancement Motive, Implicit and Explicit Narcissism on Depressive Mood. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 441-458.
31. Lee, S. R. (2019). Relationships between Grandiose Fantasy in Pathological Narcissism and Anger: A Moderated Mediation Model (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.
32. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., Kilpatirick, S. D., & Mooney, C. N. (2003). Narcissists and “victims”: The role of narcissism in the perception of transgression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 885-893.
33. Orne, M. T. (2017). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. In Sociological Methods (pp. 279-299). New York, NY: Routledge.
34. Park. S. R., Shim, M. S., & Lee, H. J. (2005). Self Evaluations and Emotional Characteristics of Overt·Covert Narcissists. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 255-266.
35. Pincus, A. L., Ansell, E. B., Pimentel, C. A., Cain, N. M., Wright, A. G. C., & Levy, L. N. (2009). Initial construction and validation of the pathology narcissism inventory. Psychology Assessment, 21, 365-379.
36. Pincus, A. L., & Lukowitsky, M. R. (2010). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annual review of clinical psychology, 6, 421-446.
37. Pincus, A. L., & Roche, M. J. (2011). Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. Handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder, 31-40.
38. Rathvon, N., & Holmstrom, R. W. (1996). An MMPI-2 portrait of narcissism. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 1-19.
39. Rhodewalt, F., & Morf, C. C. (1998). On self-aggrandizement and anger: A temporal analysis of narcissism and affective reactions to success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 672-685.
40. Robbins, S. B., & Dupont, P. (1992). Narcissistic needs of the self and perceptions of interpersonal behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, 462-467.
41. Ronningstam, E., Gunderson, J., & Lyons, M. (1995). Changes in pathological narcissism. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 253.
42. Seo, J. W. (2017). The Effect of Introvert-Outwardness of Applicants on the Use of Impression Management Strategy and the Evaluation of Interviews in Interviews (Unpublished Master Dissertation). Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
43. Somerville, L. H., Heatherton, T. F., & Kelley, W. M. (2006). Anterior cingulate cortex responds differentially to expectancy violation and social rejection. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1007-1008.
44. Tweng, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2003). “Isn’t it fun to get the respect that we’re going to deserve?” Narcissism, Social Rejection, and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 261-272.
45. Watson, P. J., Sawrie, S. M., Greene, R. L., & Arredondo, R. (2002). Narcissism and depression: MMPI-2 evidence for the continuum hypothesis in clinical samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 85-109.
46. Watson, P. J., Taylor, D., & Morris, R. J. (1987). Narcissism, sex roles, and self-functioning. Sex Roles, 16(7-8), 335-350.
47. Yang, J. W., & Kwon, S. M. (2016). Emotional Characteristics of Narcissists with Grandiosity and Vulnerability. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 215-242.
48. Yoo, S. R., & Kim, E. H. (2019). The Relationship Between Covert-narcissism and Social-anxiety: Mediating Effect of Self-consciousness Moderated by Self-compassion. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 31, 243-261.