Korean Journal of Psychology : General

理쒓렐샇 寃깋

Korean Journal of Psychology : General - Vol. 39 , No. 2

[ Regular issue ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 39, No. 2, pp.205-247
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Jun 2020
Received 19 Feb 2020 Accepted 17 Apr 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2020.6.39.2.205

한국인의 외로움(loneliness): 개념적 정의와 측정에 관한 고찰
서영석 ; 안수정1) ; 김현진2) ; 고세인3)
1)연세대학교 교육학과, 박사과정생 (tiaresoo@yonsei.ac.kr)
2)연세대학교 교육학과, 졸업생 (portmania@naver.com)
3)연세대학교 교육학과, 석사과정생 (siko4003@gmail.com)

Review on the Conceptual Definition and Measurement of Loneliness Experienced among Koreans
Young Seok Seo ; Soo Jung An1) ; Hyun Jin Kim2) ; Sein Ko3)
1)Department of Education, Graduate School, Yonsei University
2)Department of Education, Graduate School, Yonsei University
3)Department of Education, Graduate School, Yonsei University
Correspondence to : 서영석, 연세대학교 교육학부, 교수, 서울특별시 서대문구 연세로 50 Tel: 02-2123-6171, E-mail: seox0004@yonsei.ac.kr


초록

외로움이 사회적인 문제로 대두되면서 국가 차원에서 국민들의 외로움에 개입하는 나라들이 증가하고 있다. 한편, 외로움에 대한 개념적 합의가 이루어지지 않았고 유사 개념들과 외로움이 서로 혼용되고 있는 상황에서 외로움 관련 연구들은 꾸준히 증가하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 외로움에 대한 주요 이론적 접근과 관련 선행연구 및 문헌들을 고찰함으로써, 외로움의 본질적인 요소들을 이해하고 한국인들이 경험하는 독특한 외로움을 발견하고, 이를 통해 기존에 사용되고 있는 외로움 척도들을 비판적으로 고찰하고자 하였다. 우선, 본 연구에서는 외로움에 대한 주요 이론적 관점(사회적 욕구 관점, 인지적 접근, 실존적-현상론적 접근, 상호영향론적 관점)을 통합적으로 고찰하였고, 이를 통해 외로움이 관계적 결핍, 주관적 평가, 고통스러운 정서, 맥락적 요소 등으로 구성된다는 것을 확인하였다. 또한 연구자들은 선택과 인식이라는 두 차원을 기준으로 외로움이 고독, 고립, 소외, 관계 불만족 등 유사 개념들과 개념적으로 구분되는 것으로 판단하였다. 뿐만 아니라 한국인들은 집단에 대한 외로움, 타인지향적 외로움, 융합에서의 외로움을 더 많이 더 강하게 경험하고 있음을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 기존에 개발되어 사용되고 있는 외로움 척도들을 비판적으로 분석하였다.

Abstract

As loneliness has emerged as a social issue, more countries are intervening in the loneliness of their people at the national level. Meanwhile, studies have been steadily increasing in a situation where no conceptual consensus has been reached on loneliness, and similar concepts are used conceptually undifferentiated. The purpose of this study is to examine the major theories of loneliness, to examine the unique loneliness that Koreans experience, and to review the most used measures of loneliness. First, theoretical perspectives (social needs, cognitive, existential-phenomenological, and interactionistic approach) were integrally examined, confirming that loneliness consists of relational deficiencies, subjective assessment, painful emotions, and contextual factors. Second, loneliness is conceptually distinct from solitude, isolation, alienation, and dissatisfaction with relationships by two dimensions of choice and perception. Third, Koreans are more likely to experience collective, other-oriented, and fusional loneliness. Based on these results, we critically analyzed the measures of loneliness.


Keywords: loneliness, Koreans, conceptual definition, measurement
키워드: 외로움, 한국인, 개념적 정의, 측정

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