Korean Journal of Psychology : General

理쒓렐샇 寃깋

Korean Journal of Psychology : General - Vol. 38 , No. 3

[ Article ]
THE KOREAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY : GENERAL - Vol. 38, No. 3, pp.323-346
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Sep 2019
Received 14 Aug 2019 Accepted 29 Aug 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2019.09.38.3.323

조절회귀분석을 이용한 매개된 조절효과 검정에 관한 종합적 고찰
정선호 ; 양태석 ; 박중규
경희대학교 경영학과
Western Illinois University Dept. of Management and Marketing
경북대학교 심리학과

Testing Mediated Moderation Using Moderated Multiple Regression: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations
Sunho Jung ; Tae Seok Yang ; Jungkyu Park
Kyung Hee University
Western Illinois University Dept. of Management and Marketing
Kyungpook National University
Correspondence to : 박중규, 경북대학교 사회과학대학 심리학과, (41566) 대구광역시 북구 대학로 80 Tel: 053-950-7176, E-mail: jkp@knu.ac.kr


초록

행동과학 이론의 질적 성장에 따라 연구자들은 예측변수와 준거변수 간의 복잡한 관계를 이해하기 위해 매개와 조절 모형의 통합에 높은 관심을 가지게 되었다. 대표적인 연구방법이 매개된 조절과 조절된 매개이다. 매개된 조절은 조절효과가 “왜” 또는 “어떻게” 발생하는지를 제 3의 변수인 매개변수를 통해 밝히고자하며 통계적으로 매개효과 검정에 해당된다. 그리고 조절된 매개는 매개과정(mediation process)이 조절변수의 수준에 따라 달라지는 경우에 발생하며 통계적으로 조건부 간접효과를 검정한다. Hayes의 PROCESS는 경로분석 접근법에 따른 조건부 과정분석(conditional process analysis)을 위해 개발된 SPSS 매크로 프로그램이다. PROCESS는 다양한 통합 모형에서 조건부 간접효과를 용이하게 검정할 수 있다는 장점이 있다. 이 프로그램의 성장과 맞물려 조절된 매개효과 모형은 빈번하게 활용되고 있다. 이에 반해 매개된 조절효과 검정은 상대적으로 그렇지 못하다. 매개된 조절의 활용이 저조한 대표적인 이유는 많은 연구자들이 매개된 조절은 조절된 매개와 통계적으로 구분되지 않고 PROCESS를 활용한 자료 분석 절차도 동일하다고 믿기 때문이다. 이에 본 논문은 조절회귀분석(moderated multiple regression)에 기반을 둔 세 가지 유형(TypeⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ)의 매개된 조절효과 모형을 소개한다. 매개된 조절을 최초로 제안한 Baron과 Kenny(1986)의 단계적 접근법(causal steps approach)을 활용하여 이들 유형에 대해 각각의 통계적 정의 및 자료 분석 절차를 논의한다. 먼저, 이들의 탄생 배경을 이해하기 위해 조절회귀모형에서 조절효과의 개념적 모형(conceptual model)과 통계적 모형(statistical model)의 차이를 논의한다. 다음으로 각 유형 별로 단계적 접근법에 따른 매개와 조절 모형의 통합과정, 통계적 모형, 매개된 조절효과 검정 절차를 논의한다. 마지막으로, 이러한 논의를 바탕으로 PROCESS(Version 3.1)를 활용한 Type III 매개된 조절효과 검정 절차를 예시한다. 연구자들이 연구 배경과 연구 문제에 따라 적합한 조절효과 모형과 매개된 조절효과 유형을 선택하고 타당한 절차에 따라 검정을 진행하는데 도움이 되고자 한다.

Abstract

Baron and Kenny (1986) first proposed the term mediated moderation, to explore how and why the moderation effect occurs. Most researchers believe that Baron and Kenny (1986)’s model is the only mediated moderation method for analysis. In fact, there are three types of mediated moderation models (Type I, II and III) that have each been adopted as most appropriate in various research areas of behavioral science. However, few are aware of existence of these three types and their distinctive conceptual and statistical definitions. Additionally, to date there has been no source that provides an integrated introduction of the methodological, statistical analyses to three types of mediated moderation model. It is our intention in this manuscript to provide a comprehensive, accessible framework by which researchers examining mediated moderation models can effectively choose a valid conceptual model and statistical testing procedures. We first, define each of three types of the mediated moderation model based on the differences between their conceptual and statistical models and provide examples of each. Second, we discuss how the three types were derived from a single concept of mediated moderation model via the approach of Baron and Kenny (1986). Third, we describe the analytic procedure by examining each mediated moderation model based on a statistical significance testing approach with a real example, accompanied by a regression-based software, PROCESS (version 3.1).


Keywords: moderated multiple regression, mediation, moderation, mediated moderation, the Baron and Kenny approach, PROCESS
키워드: 조절회귀분석, 매개효과, 조절효과, 매개된 조절효과, Baron과 Kenny의 단계적 접근법, PROCESS

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