Korean Journal of Psychology : General
[ Article ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 40, No. 3, pp.301-327
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Sep 2021
Received 02 Feb 2021 Revised 14 Jul 2021 Accepted 20 Aug 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2021.9.40.3.301

한국판 도덕손상 사건 척도 및 도덕손상 경험 척도 개발 연구

장은영
Development of the Korean Version of the Moral Injury Events Scale and Moral Injury Experience Scale
Eun-young Jang
Department of Counseling Psychology, Honam University

Correspondence to: 장은영, 호남대학교 상담심리학과, 광주시 광산구 호남대길120 지성관 6618호, Tel : 062-940-5479, E-mail : jangmean@hanmail.net

초록

본 연구에서는 도덕손상 사건 척도(Moral Injury Events Scale)를 한국어로 타당화하였고, 도덕손상 사건으로 인해 경험한 주관적 반응을 측정하는 도덕손상 경험 척도(Moral Injury Experience Scale)를 개발하였다. 첫 번째 연구에서 9개 문항으로 구성된 국외 도덕손상 사건 척도를 이중번역 과정을 거쳐 한국어로 구성하였고, 이 척도와 별개로 도덕손상 경험 척도를 18개의 문항으로 구성하였다. 이 27개 문항에 더하여 수치심, 죄책감 및 분노 척도에 한국 성인 496명이 온라인 조사 방식으로 응답한 자료를 분석하였다. 전체 자료를 무작위로 두 개의 표집으로 분할하여 한 표집으로 탐색적 요인분석을 실시하였고, 다른 표집으로 확인적 요인분석과 신뢰도 및 타당도 분석을 실시하였다. 요인분석 결과에서 원척도의 9개 문항 2요소 구조가 반복검증되었으며, 표준화 경로계수도 원척도와 유사한 수준으로 추출되었다. 각 요소는 6개 문항의 ‘자신 혹은 타인의 위반 지각’ 및 3개 문항의 ‘타인 배신 지각’으로 명명하였다. 도덕손상 경험 척도는 18문항 3요소가 가정되었으나, 부합도 지수를 고려하여 15문항 3요소가 타당화되었다. 각 요소는 6개 문항의 ‘자신에 의한 손상’, 3개 문항의 ‘타인에 의한 손상’ 및 6개 문항의 ‘타인의 배신에 의한 손상’으로 명명되었다. 그리고 도덕손상 사건의 두 요소와 도덕손상 경험의 세 요소가 수치심, 죄책감 및 분노와 유의한 상관관계를 보여서 수렴타당도가 확인되었다. 두 번째 연구에서 도덕손상 사건, 도덕손상 경험, 수치심, 죄책감, 분노, 우울, 일반정신건강 및 삶의만족 척도에 대한 반응을 535명으로부터 온라인 조사 방식으로 수집하였다. 첫 번째 연구와 동일한 문항분석을 실시하여 두 척도의 신뢰도와 요인구조를 재검증하였다. 준거타당도를 확인한 상관분석 결과에서 도덕손상의 다섯 가지 하위요소들은 우울감 및 일반정신건강과 유의한 상관관계를 보였고, 삶의만족과는 0에 가까운 상관관계를 보였다. 국외연구 결과와 비교하여 도덕손상 경험에서 한국인들과 미국인들이 드러낸 유사점과 차이점을 기술하였다. 도덕손상이 도덕관련 정서 및 정신건강에 미치는 효과를 논의하였고, 이 척도들의 활용방안을 제안하였다.

Abstract

This study was to develop the scales that measures the extent to which Koreans perceive the events that are against their belief system and the extent to which they have suffered from those events. In the first study, the Moral Injury Events Scale comprised of nine items was constructed in Korean through double translation. Additionally, the Moral Injury Experience Scale was constructed with 18 items. In addition to these 27 items, the responses of 496 Korean adults who participated in an online survey on shame, guilt, and anger were analyzed. The total data were randomly divided with two samplings, one to conduct exploratory factor analysis and the other to test confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and convergent validity analysis. Factor analysis revealed the two-factor structure of nine items from the original scale was replicated, and standardized path coefficients were also extracted at the similar level as the original scale. Each factor was assessed according to “perceiving your or others’ breach” with six items and “perceiving others’ betrayal” with three items. The Moral Injury Experience Scale was presumed to have three factors with 18 items, but it was validated to three factors with 15 items considering the conformity index. Each factor was assessed according to “damage by yourself” with six items, “damage by others” with three items, and “damage by others’ betrayal” with six items. The two factors of major injury events and three factors of moral injury experience showed a significant correlation with shame, guilt, and anger, thereby proving convergent validity. In the second study, an online survey was conducted to collect responses about moral injury events, moral injury experience, shame, guilt, anger, life satisfaction, general mental health, and depression from 535 participants. The same item analysis as the first study was conducted to revalidate the reliability and factor structure of the two scales. In the results of the correlation analysis that verified the criterion validity, the five subfactors of moral injury showed a significant correlation with general mental health and depression, and a near-zero correlation with life satisfaction. Compared to studies conducted overseas, this research described the similarities and differences in moral injury experience of Koreans and Americans. It then discussed the effects of moral injury on morality-related emotions and mental health and suggested application plans of these scales.

Keywords:

moral injury, shame, guilt, anger, mental health

키워드:

도덕손상, 수치심, 죄책감, 분노, 정신건강

Acknowledgments

본 연구는 2020년 대한민국 교육부와 한국연구재단의 지원(NRF-2020S1A5A8044134)과 2020년도 호남대학교 학술연구비 지원을 받아 수행되었음.

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