Korean Journal of Psychology : General
[ Article ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 40, No. 2, pp.213-237
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Jun 2021
Received 04 Jun 2021 Accepted 22 Jun 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2021.

정서적 고갈과 수면의 질의 관계에 대한 심리적 분리의 매개효과

김보람1) ; 석혜원2) ; 장재윤
1)서강대학교 심리학과, 석사 boram.kim50@gmail.com
2)서강대학교 심리학과, 부교수 hsuk2@sogang.ac.kr
The mediating effect of psychological detachment on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and sleep quality
Boram Kim1) ; Hye Won Suk2) ; Jae Yoon Chang
1)Sogang University
2)Sogang University

Correspondence to: 장재윤, 서강대학교 심리학과, 교수, 서울시 마포구 신수동 1 Tel: 02-705-7956, E-mail: jych@sogang.ac.kr


본 연구는 정서적 고갈과 수면의 질 간의 관계에서 심리적 분리의 간접효과를 검증하였다. 직무 요구상 여러 학생들을 대상으로 자신의 정서를 조절해야 하는 기혼 여교사 78명을 대상으로 일일 조사(월요일부터 금요일까지 하루 2회조사) 자료를 통해 개인 내 수준에서 정서적 고갈이 심리적 분리를 통해 수면의 질을 예측할 수 있는지 검증하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 매일 퇴근 무렵 경험하는 정서적 고갈의 정도가 퇴근 후 심리적 분리와 부적인 관련성을 보였다. 둘째, 매일 퇴근 후 심리적 분리의 정도는 그날 밤 수면의 질과 정적인 관련성을 보였다. 셋째, 정서적 고갈을 많이 경험할수록 일로부터 심리적으로 분리하지 못하며, 이는 낮은 질의 수면으로 이어지는 심리적 분리의 매개효과가 나타났다. 마지막으로 본 연구의 시사점, 제한점 및 추후 연구방향을 논의하였다.


This study investigated the indirect effect of psychological detachment on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and sleep quality. A daily survey (twice a day from Monday to Friday) was conducted to examine whether emotional exhaustion may predict sleep quality via psychological detachment at the within-person level. Results revealed that: 1) daily emotional exhaustion leaving the office was negatively related to the psychological detachment after work; 2) daily psychological detachment after work was positively related to the quality of sleep at night; 3) daily psychological detachment mediated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and sleep quality. These findings can enhance understanding of the process by which psychological mechanism contributes to sleep quality on a daily basis. This study also demonstrates that mentally “switch off” would supplement resources depleted at work and lessen the level of mental activation and arousal to get better sleep.


emotional exhaustion, psychological detachment, sleep quality, multilevel structural equation modeling


정서적 고갈, 심리적 분리, 수면의 질, 다층 구조방정식


본 연구는 제1저자의 석사학위 논문을 수정하였으며, 2020년 SIOP(Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology) Annual Conference에 발표되었다. 본 연구에 사용된 데이터를 제공해준 천미애 선생님께 감사 드립니다.


  • Åkerstedt, T. (2006). Psychosocial stress and impaired sleep. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 32(6), 493-501. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40967601 [https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1054]
  • Åkerstedt, T., Knutsson, A., Westerholm, P., Theorell, T., Alfredsson, L., & Kecklund, G. (2002). Sleep disturbances, work stress and work hours: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(3), 741-748. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00333-1 [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00333-1]
  • Åkerstedt, T., Nordin, M., Alfredsson, L., Westerholm, P., & Kecklund, G.(2012). Predicting changes in sleep complaints from baseline values and changes in work demands, work control, and work preoccupation-the WOLF-project. Sleep Medicine, 13(1), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2011.04.015 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2011.04.015]
  • Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36(2), 129-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.2.129. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.2.129]
  • Bower, G. H. (1983). Affect and cognition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences, 302, 387-402. http://doi: 10.1098/rstb.1983.0062 [https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1983.0062]
  • Brand, S., Beck, J., Hatzinger, M., Harbaugh, A., Ruch, W., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2010). Associations between satisfaction with life, burnout-related emotional and physical exhaustion, and sleep complaints. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 11(5), 744-754. https://doi.org/10.3109/15622971003624205 [https://doi.org/10.3109/15622971003624205]
  • Brosschot, J. F., Pieper, S., & Thayer, J. F. (2005). Expanding stress theory: Prolonged activation and perseverative cognition. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(10), 1043-1049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.04.008 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.04.008]
  • Bures, A. L., Henderson, D. A., Mayfield, J., Mayfield, M., & Worley, J. (1996). The effects of spousal support and gender on worker's stress and job satisfaction: A cross national investigation of dual career couples. Journal of Applied Business Research, 12(1), 52-58. https://doi.org/10.19030/jabr.v12i1.5837 [https://doi.org/10.19030/jabr.v12i1.5837]
  • Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F. Ⅲ., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupper, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4 [https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4]
  • Cheon, M. (2015). The effects of sleep quality and quantity of the dual-earner female teachers on the work engagement: The moderating effects of work-family conflict and spousal supports [Unpublished master's thesis]. Sogang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Craig, A., & Cooper, R. E. (1992). Symptoms of acute and chronic fatigue. In A. P. Smith & D. M. Jones (Eds.), Handbook of human performance (Vol. 3, pp. 289-339). London: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-650353-1.50017-4 [https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-650353-1.50017-4]
  • Cropley, M., Dijk, D. J., & Stanley, N. (2006). Job strain, work rumination and sleep in school teachers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(2), 181-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500513913 [https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500513913]
  • de Jong-Meyer, R., Beck, B., & Riede, K. (2009). Relationships between rumination, worry, intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 547-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.12.010 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.12.010]
  • Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Geurts, S. A. E., & Taris, T. W. (2009). Daily recovery from work-related effort during non-work time. In P. L. Perrewé, D. C. Ganster, S. Sonnentag (Eds.), Research in organizational stress and well-being (Vol. 7, pp. 85-123). Oxford, England: Emerald Publishing Group https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-3555(2009)0000007006 [https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-3555(2009)0000007006]
  • Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 178-199. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.2791609 [https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.2791609]
  • Ekstedt, M., Söderstrom, M., Åkerstedt, T., Nilsson, J., Søndergaard H. P., & Aleksander, P. (2006). Disturbed sleep and fatigue in occupational burnout. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 32(2), 121-131. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.987 [https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.987]
  • Etzion, D., Eden, D., & Lapidot, Y. (1998). Relief from job stressors and burnout: Reserve service as a respite. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 577-585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.4.577. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.4.577]
  • Freudenberger, H. J. (1975). The staff burnout syndrome in alternative institutions. Psychotherapy: Theory Research & Pratice, 12(1), 72-83. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0086411 [https://doi.org/10.1037/h0086411]
  • Godet-Cayre, V., Pelletier-Fleury, N., Le Vaillant, M., Dinet, J., Massuel, M. A., & Léger, D. (2006). Insomnia and absenteeism at work. Who pays the cost? Sleep, 29(2), 179-184. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/29.2.179 [https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/29.2.179]
  • Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.95 [https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.95]
  • Hahn, V. C., Binnewies, C., Sonnentag, S., & Mojza, E. J. (2011). Learning how to recover from job stress: Effects of a recovery training program on recovery, recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(2), 202-216. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022169 [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022169]
  • Hahn, V. C., & Dormann, C. (2013). The role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work and well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 26-36. https://doi.org/10.1037/e604062012-108 [https://doi.org/10.1037/e604062012-108]
  • Harvey, A. G. (2000). Pre-sleep cognitive activity: A comparison of sleep-onset insomniacs and good sleepers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39(3), 275-286. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466500163284 [https://doi.org/10.1348/014466500163284]
  • Hobfoll, S. E.(1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513 [https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513]
  • Hobfoll, S. E. (2011). Conservation of resource caravans and engaged settings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(1), 116-122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2010.02016.x [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2010.02016.x]
  • Hobson, J. A. (2005). Sleep is of the brain, by the brain and for the brain. Nature, 437, 1254-1256. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04283 [https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04283]
  • Hülsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J., Feinholdt, A., & Lang, J. W. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: the role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 310-325. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031313 [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031313]
  • Irwin, M. R. (2015). Why sleep is important for health: a psychoneuroimmunology perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 143-172. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115205 [https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115205]
  • Jackson, S. E., & Maslach, C. (1982). After-effects of job-related stress: Families as victims. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 3(1), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030030106 [https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030030106]
  • Janssen, O., Lam, C. K., & Huang, X. (2010). Emotional exhaustion and job performance: The moderating roles of distributive justice and positive affect. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(6), 787-809. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.614 [https://doi.org/10.1002/job.614]
  • Jenkins, S. R., & Maslach, C. (1994). Psychological health and involvement in interpersonally demanding occupations: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(2), 101-127. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150202 [https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150202]
  • Ju, Y. E., Lucey B. P., & Holtzman, D. M. (2014). Sleep and Alzheimer disease pathology-a bidirectional relationship. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10(2), 115-119. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2013.269 [https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2013.269]
  • Kantermann, T., Juda, M., Vetter, C., & Roenneberg, T. (2010). Shift-Work Research: Where do we Stand, Where should we go? Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 8(2), 95-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2010.00432.x [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2010.00432.x]
  • Kim, E. (2017). Exploration of causes and coping strategies for the teacher burnout. Theory and Practice of Education, 22, 1-38. UCI: G704-001913.2017.22.1.007
  • Kim, T. (1995). A study on the relationship between Principal’s leadership and teacher burnout [Unpublished master's thesis]. Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
  • Knab, B., & Engel-Sittenfeld, P. (1983). The many facets of poor sleep. Neuropsychobiology, 10(2-3), 141-147. https://doi.org/10.1159/000118001 [https://doi.org/10.1159/000118001]
  • Krull, J. L., & MacKinnon, D. P. (1999). Multilevel mediation modeling in group-based intervention studies. Evaluation Review, 23(4), 418-444. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841x9902300404 [https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9902300404]
  • Krull, J. L., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2001). Multilevel modeling of individual and group level mediated effects. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36(2), 249-277. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3602_06 [https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327906MBR3602_06]
  • Kühnel, J., Zacher, H., De Bloom, J., & Bledow, R. (2017). Take a break! Benefits of sleep and short breaks for daily work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(4), 481-491. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432x.2016.1269750 [https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1269750]
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282-325). New York: Guilford.
  • Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1993). A further examination of managerial burnout: Toward an integrated model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(1), 3-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140103 [https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140103]
  • Lee, S., & Nam, G. (2019). The effects of workaholics and job engagement on sleep quality: An experience sampling study on the role of psychological detachment. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 32(4), 419-437. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i4.419-437 [https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i4.419-437]
  • Linton, S. J., Kecklund, G., Franklin, K. A., Leissner, L. C., Sivertsen, B., Lindberg, E., Svensson A. C., Hansson S. O., Sundin Ö., Hetta J., Björkelund C., & Hall, C. (2015). The effect of the work environment on future sleep disturbances: a systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 23, 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.10.010 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.10.010]
  • Lord, R. G., Diefendorff, J. M., Schmidt, A. M., & Hall, R. J. (2010). Self-regulation at work. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 543-568. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100314 [https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100314]
  • Maslach, C. (1976). Burned-out. Human Behavior, 5, 16-22.
  • Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout: The cost of caring. New York: Prentice-Hall.
  • Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2(2), 99-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205 [https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205]
  • Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2016). Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 15(2), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20311 [https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20311]
  • Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397-422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397 [https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397]
  • McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840(1), 33-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09546.x [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09546.x]
  • Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In P. J. D. Drenth, & H. Thierry (Eds.), Handbook of work and organizational psychology (Vol. 2: Work psychology, pp. 5-33). Hove, England.: Psychology Press.
  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
  • Park, C. (2017). The relation of daily emotional labor and employee well-being: the mediating role of regulatory effort and emotions, the moderating role of psychological detachment [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Sogang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Park, H., Park, Y., Kim, M., & Hur, T. (2011). A validation study of a Korean version of the recovery experience questionnaire. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(3), 523-552. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.3.201108.523 [https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.3.201108.523]
  • Park, S., Ha, Y., Chung, E., Sohn, H., & Sohn, Y. (2012). The effects of work flow and leisure satisfaction on employees’ affect: Focus on sleep quality as a mediator. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 25(1), 125-145. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.25.1.201202.125 [https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.25.1.201202.125]
  • Park, Y., & Fritz, C. (2015). Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 557-566. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037894 [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037894]
  • Pereira, D., & Elfering, A. (2014). Social stressors at work, sleep quality and psychosomatic health complaints-A longitudinal ambulatory field study. Stress and Health, 30(1), 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2494 [https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2494]
  • Preacher, K. J., Zhang, Z., & Zyphur, M. J. (2011). Alternative methods for assessing mediation in multilevel data: The advantages of multilevel SEM. Structural Equation Modeling, 18(2), 161-182. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2011.557329 [https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2011.557329]
  • Preacher, K. J., Zyphur, M. J., & Zhang, Z. (2010). A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15(3), 209-233. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020141 [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020141]
  • Querstret, D., & Cropley, M. (2012). Exploring the relationship between work-related rumination, sleep quality, and work-related fatigue. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(3), 341-353. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028552 [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028552]
  • R Development Core Team. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available from http://www.R-project.org, /
  • Scott, B. A., & Judge, T. A. (2006). Insomnia, emotions, and job satisfaction: A multilevel study. Journal of Management, 32(5), 622-645. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206306289762 [https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206306289762]
  • Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. In C. L. Cooper, & I. T. Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 25-48). New York: Wiley.
  • Sluiter, J. K., Frings-Dresen, M. H., van der Beek, A. J., & Meijman, T. F. (2001). The relation between work-induced neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery, subjective need for recovery, and health status. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 50(1), 29-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00213-0 [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00213-0]
  • Sonnentag, S. (2012). Psychological detachment from work during leisure time: The benefits of mentally disengaging from work. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 114-118. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411434979 [https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411434979]
  • Sonnentag, S. (2018). The recovery paradox: Portraying the complex interplay between job stressors, lack of recovery, and poor well-being. Research in Organizational Behavior, 38, 169-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2018.11.002 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2018.11.002]
  • Sonnentag, S., Arbeus, H., Mahn, C., & Fritz, C. (2014). Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: Moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(2), 206-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035760. [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035760]
  • Sonnentag, S., & Bayer, U. V. (2005). Switching off mentally: predictors and consequences of psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(4), 393-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.10.4.393. [https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.10.4.393]
  • Sonnentag, S., Binnewies, C., & Mojza, E. J. (2008). “Did you have a nice evening?” A day-level study on recovery experiences, sleep, and affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 674-684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.674 [https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.674]
  • Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The recovery experience questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 204-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.204 [https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.204]
  • Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2015). Recovery from job stress: The stressor-detachment model as an integrative framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(S1), S72-S103. http://doi.org/10.1002/job.1924 [https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1924]
  • Sonnentag, S., & Zijlstra, F. R. (2006). Job characteristics and off-job activities as predictors of need for recovery, well-being, and fatigue. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 330-350. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.330 [https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.330]
  • Tofighi, D., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). RMediation: An R package for mediation analysis confidence intervals. Behavior Research Methods, 43(3), 692-700. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-011-0076-x [https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-011-0076-x]
  • Tofighi, D., & Thoemmes, F. (2014). Single-level and multilevel mediation analysis. Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(1), 93-119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431613511331 [https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431613511331]
  • Trougakos, J. P., Beal, D. J., Green, S. G., & Weiss, H. M. (2008). Making the break count: An episodic examination of recovery activities, emotional experiences, and positive affective displays. Academy of Management Journal, 51(1), 131-146. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2008.30764063 [https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2008.30764063]
  • Ursin, H., & Eriksen, H. R. (2004). The cognitive activation theory of stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(5), 567-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(03)00091-X [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(03)00091-X]
  • Van Laethem, M., Beckers, D. G., Kompier, M. A., Dijksterhuis, A., & Geurts, S. A. (2013). Psychosocial work characteristics and sleep quality: a systematic review of longitudinal and intervention research. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 39(6), 535-549. https://doi.org/10.1037/e577572014-113 [https://doi.org/10.1037/e577572014-113]
  • van Veldhoven, M., & Broersen, S. (2003). Measurement quality and validity of the “need for recovery scale”. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, i3-i9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.60.suppl_1.i3 [https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.60.suppl_1.i3]
  • Vela-Bueno, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Rodríguez-Muñoz, A., Olavarrieta-Bernardino, S., Fernández-Mendoza, J., De la Cruz-Troca, J. J., Bixler, E. O., & Vgontzas, A. N. (2008). Insomnia and sleep quality among primary care physicians with low and high burnout levels. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(4), 435-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.10.014 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.10.014]
  • Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 465-490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.96.3.465 [https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.96.3.465]
  • West, C. P., Dyrbye, L. N., Sloan, J. A., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2009). Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(12), 1318-1321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-1129-z [https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-1129-z]
  • Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 486-493. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.486 [https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.486]
  • Yoo, S. S., Gujar, N., Hu, P., Jolesz, F. A., & Walker, M. P. (2007). The human emotional brain without sleep-a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Current Biology, 17(20), R877-R878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.007 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.007]
  • Zijlstra, F. R. H., & Sonnentag. S. (2006). After work is done: Psychological perspectives on recovery from work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(2), 129-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500513855 [https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500513855]
  • Zhu, Z., Kuykendall, L., & Zhang, X. (2019). The impact of within-day work breaks on daily recovery processes: An event-based pre-/post-experience sampling study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 92(1), 191-211. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12246 [https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12246]