Korean Journal of Psychology : General
[ Regular issue ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 39, No. 3, pp.335-357
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Sep 2020
Received 11 Jun 2020 Accepted 24 Jun 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2020.

한국판 청소년용 부모 양육스트레스 검사 단축형(Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents-Short Form: K-SIPA-SF)의 타당화 연구

정경미1) ; 정승민 ; 양윤정2)
1)연세대학교 심리학과, 교수 kmchung@yonsei.ac.kr
2)연세대학교 심리학과, 학생 ericay23@gmail.com
Validation Study for the Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents-Short Form (K-SIPA-SF)
Kyong-Mee Chung1) ; Seungmin Jung ; Yoon Jung Yang2)
1)Department of Psychology, Yonsei University
2)Department of Psychology, Yonsei University

Correspondence to: 정승민, 연세대학교 심리학과, 학생, 서울특별시 서대문구 신촌동 연세로 50 Tel: 02-2123-4886, E-mail: smjung802@yonsei.ac.kr


본 연구에서는 한국판 청소년용 부모 양육스트레스 검사(Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents: K-SIPA)의 표준화 연구 자료(만 11세-19세 자녀를 둔 부모 942명)를 이용하여 단축형을 개발하고 그 신뢰도와 타당도를 검증하였다. 먼저, 무선추출된 471명의 자료를 이용해 탐색적 요인분석을 실시하였고 그 결과에 근거해 단축형의 문항을 선별하였다. 나머지 자료(471부)를 사용하여 확인적 요인분석 및 신뢰도, 타당도 검증을 실시하였다. 신뢰도 검증은 내적일치도와 검사-재검사 신뢰도 분석으로 진행하였다. 타당도는 다음의 방법으로 검증하였다. 우선, 공인타당도 검증을 위해 K-SIPA, 양육효능감, SF-36, PHQ-9, GAD-7, K-CBCL 6-18과의 상관분석을 실시하였다. 수렴타당도는 K-SIPA-SF 총점 및 하위척도 점수 간 상관분석을 통해, 변별타당도는 정신과적 진단을 받은 자녀와 정상발달 자녀의 부모 간 양육스트레스 차이 검증을 통해 확인하였다. 탐색적 요인분석 결과, 3요인의 37문항이 추출되어 각 요인을 ‘자녀-사회적 적응’, ‘부모의 고통’, ‘자녀-정서적 적응’으로 명명하였으며, 확인적 요인분석을 통해 보통 수준의 적합도를 확인하였다. 신뢰도와 타당도를 보기 위한 모든 분석에서 수치가 양호한 수준으로 나타나 K-SIPA-SF가 국내 청소년 자녀를 둔 부모의 양육스트레스를 측정하는 데 신뢰롭고 타당한 도구임을 확인하였다. 마지막으로, 본 연구의 함의와 한계점을 논의하였다.


In this study, items for Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents(K-SIPA) were reduced and psychometric properties were examined. Data used in this study were collected from the K-SIPA standardization study(942 parents with children aged from 11 to 19). Items for K-SIPA short form(K-SIPA-SF) were selected on the basis of the results from the exploratory factor analysis(EFA) conducted in randomly extracted sample(N=471). The remaining half of the data(N=471) were used to perform confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) and to test reliability and validity. To verify the reliability, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were examined, while the validity was verified with the following methods. First, the correlation with K-SIPA, Parental Confidence Questionnaire, SF-36, PHQ-9, GAD-7, K-CBCL 6-18 was examined to verify concurrent validity. Convergence validity was verified by correlation among sub-factors and total stress scores of K-SIPA-SF. The difference of parenting stress level was examined between parents of children diagnosed with mental illness and of typically developing children to verify discrimination validity. EFA revealed three distinct factors consisted of 37 items, and each factor was named ‘Social Adaptation of Adolescents,’ ‘Parental Distress,’ and ‘Emotional Adaptation of Adolescents.’ The goodness of fit indices of K-SIPA-SF was shown to be moderate, and all the reliability and validity were secured. The results confirm that K-SIPA-SF could be a reliable and valid tool to measure parenting stress for parents of adolescents in Korea. Further implications and limitations of this study were discussed.


Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents, Parenting stress, Short Form,. Development, Validation


한국판 청소년용 부모 양육스트레스 검사, 양육스트레스, 단축형, 개발, 타당화


본 연구는 2017년도 정부(과학기술정보통신부)의 재원으로 한국연구재단의 지원을 받아 수행되었음 (과제번호: 2017S1A5A2A01023824). 본 연구의 대상 및 모집과정의 상당 부분은 K-SIPA 전문가 지침서(정경미, 김민희, 이서이, 이창석, 양윤정, 정승민, 2020)에도 포함되어 있음.


  • Abidin, R. R. (2012). Parenting Stress Index: PSI-4; Professional Manual. PAR.
  • Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1991). Child Behavior Checklist. In Polaino-Lorente, A., & Ascaso, L. E. (Eds.), Las Depresiones Infantiles (7, pp.371-392). Burlington, Ediciones Morata.
  • Allen, J. P., & Loeb, E. L. (2015). The autonomy connection challenge in adolescent-peer relationships. Child Development Perspectives, 9(2), 101-105. [https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12111]
  • Almeida, R. (1996). Hindu, Christian, and Muslim families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & J. K. Pearce (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 395-426). Guilford Press.
  • An, J. Y., Seo, E. R., Lim, K. H., Shin, J. H. & Kim, J. B. (2013). Standardization of the Korean version of Screening Tool for Depression(Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9). Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry, 19(1), 47-56.
  • Beck, A. T., Rial, W. Y., & Rickels, K. (1974). Short form of depression inventory: cross-validation. Psychological Reports.
  • Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238]
  • Biondic, D., Wiener, J., & Martinussen, R. (2019). Parental psychopathology and parenting stress in parents of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(8). [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01430-8]
  • Brown, L. K., Tarantino, N., Tolou-Shams, M., Esposito-Smythers, C., Healy, M. G., & Craker, L. (2018). Mental health symptoms and parenting stress of parents of courtinvolved youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(3), 843-852. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0923-1]
  • Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (154, pp. 136-136). SAGE Focus Editions.
  • Chung, K. M., Lee, C. & Lee, S. (2019a). Standardization Study for the Korean Version of Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (K-SIPA). Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 38(3), 419-441. [https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2019.]
  • Chung, K. M., Lee, S. & Lee, C. (2019b) Standardization Study for the Korean Version of Parenting Stress Index Fourth Edition (K-PSI-4). Korean Journal of Psychology: General 38(2), 247-273. [https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2019.24.4.001]
  • Cole, J. C., Rabin, A. S., Smith, T. L., & Kaufman, A. S. (2004). Development and validation of a Rasch-derived CES-D short form. Psychological Assessment, 16(4), 360-372. [https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.16.4.360]
  • Crnic, K., & Ross, E. (2017). Parenting stress and parental efficacy. In Parental Stress and Early Child Development (pp. 263-284). Springer, Cham. [https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55376-4_11]
  • Darling, N., Cumsille, P., & Martínez, M. L. (2008). Individual differences in adolescents’ beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority and their own obligation to obey: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 79(4). [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01178.x]
  • Frontini, R., Moreira, H., & Canavarro, M. C. (2016). Parenting stress and quality of life in pediatric obesity: The mediating role of parenting style. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(3), 279-3. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0279-3]
  • Gray, W. N., Graef, D. M., Schuman, S. S., Janicke, D. M., & Hommel, K. A. (2013). Parenting stress in pediatric IBD: relations with child psychopathology, family functioning, and disease severity. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 34(4), 237-244. [https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e318290568a]
  • Gupta, V. B. (2007). Comparison of parenting stress in different developmental disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 19(4), 417-425. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-007-9060-x]
  • Haydicky, J., Shecter, C., Wiener, J., & Ducharme, J. M. (2015). Evaluation of MBCT for adolescents with ADHD and their parents: Impact on individual and family functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(1), 76-94. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9815-1]
  • Heath, C. L., Curtis, D. F., Fan, W., & McPherson, R. (2015). The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(1), 118-129. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0458-2]
  • Holmbeck, G. N. (2018). A model of family relational transformations during the transition to adolescence: Parent-adolescent conflict and adaptation. In Graber, J. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Petersen, A. C. (Eds.), Transitions Through Adolescence (pp. 167-199). Psychology Press. [https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315789286-7]
  • Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. [https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118]
  • Huang, G. H. C., & Gove, M. (2015). Asian parenting styles and academic achievement: Views from eastern and western perspectives. Education, 135(3), 389-397.
  • Hutchison, L., Feder, M., Abar, B., & Winsler, A. (2016). Relations between parenting stress, parenting style, and child executive functioning for children with ADHD or autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(12), 3644-3656. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0518-2]
  • Igarashi, M., Saito, H., Morioka, Y., Oiji, A., Nadaoka, T., & Kashiwakura, M. (2000). Stress vulnerability and climacteric symptoms: Life events, coping behavior, and severity of symptoms. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 49(3), 170-178. [https://doi.org/10.1159/000010241]
  • Johnson, N., Frenn, M., Feetham, S., & Simpson, P. (2011). Autism spectrum disorder: Parenting stress, family functioning and health-related quality of life. Families, Systems, & Health, 29(3), 232-252. [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025341]
  • Joshi, A., & Gutierrez, B. J. (2006). Parenting stress in parents of Hispanic adolescents. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 209-216.
  • Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2006). PRQ: Parenting relationship questionnaire manual. Pearson. [https://doi.org/10.1037/t15146-000]
  • Karst, J. S., Van Hecke, A. V., Carson, A. M., Stevens, S., Schohl, K., & Dolan, B. (2015). Parent and family outcomes of PEERS: A social skills intervention for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(3), 752-765. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2231-6]
  • Kim, J. W. (2003). A study on parenting stress of adolescent child and coping strategies(Masters dissertation). Daejeon University, Daejeon, South Korea.
  • Kim, M. H., Chung, C. M., Rhee, M. A., Ryu, C. J., Won, S. C. & Shin, Y. J. (2011). Discrepancy between Parent and Child Report on Quality of Life and Behavioral Problems in Child and Adolescent cancer survivors and Healthy Control Group. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 16(3), 483-500. [https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2011.16.3.004]
  • Kim, Y. A., Lee, J., Kim, Y. J., Kim, M. Y. & Oh, K. J. (2011). Standardization Study for the Korean Version of the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form. Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology 24(2), 65-86. [https://doi.org/10.6115/fer.2015.013]
  • Koh, S. B., Chang, S. J., Kang, M. G., Cha, B. S. & Park, J. K. (1997). Reliability and Validity on Measurement Instrument for Health Status Assessment in Occupational Workers. Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(2), 251-266.
  • Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ‐9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606-613. [https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x]
  • Lorenzo-Blanco, E., Meca, A., Unger, J. B., Romero, A., Gonzales-Backen, M., Piña-Watson, B., Cano, M. A., Zamboanga, B. L., Des Rosiers, S. E., Soto, D. W., Villamar, J. A., Lizzi, K. M., Pattarroyo, M., & Schwartz, S. J. (2016). Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(8), 966-976. [https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000223]
  • Marteau, T. M., & Bekker, H. (1992). The development of a six-item short-form of the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 301-306. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1992.tb00997.x]
  • McDonald, L., Conrad, T., Fairtlough, A., Fletcher, J., Green, L., Moore, L., & Lepps, B. (2009). An evaluation of a groupwork intervention for teenage mothers and their families. Child & Family Social Work, 14(1), 45-57. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2008.00580.x]
  • McLean, K. C., Breen, A. V., & Fournier, M. A. (2010). Constructing the self in early, middle, and late adolescent boys: Narrative identity, individuation, and well-being. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 166-187. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00633.x]
  • McStay, R. L., Dissanayake, C., Scheeren, A., Koot, H. M., & Begeer, S. (2014). Parenting stress and autism: The role of age, autism severity, quality of life and problem behaviour of children and adolescents with autism. Autism, 18(5), 502-510. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313485163]
  • Meeus, W. (2011). The study of adolescent identity formation 2000-2010: A review of longitudinal research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 75-94. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00716.x]
  • Melançon, F., Cossette, L., Smith, C., Beauvais-Dubois, C., Cyr, C., & Smolla, N. (2019). Parenting stress of adoptive mothers, motherchild conflict, and behavior problems during adolescence among international adoptees. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(8), 988-993. [https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000542]
  • Min, S. W. & Yoo, M. S. (2018). Validation of Korean Version of SIPA(Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents). Journal of the Korea Entertainment Industry Association, 12(4), 267-281. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2017.01.001]
  • Moore, K. A., Halle, T. G., Vandivere, S., & Mariner, C. L. (2002). Scaling back survey scales: How short is too short?. Sociological Methods & Research, 30(4), 530-567. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124102030004003]
  • Morse, R. S., Rojahn, J., & Smith, A. C. M. (2014). Effects of behavior problems, family functioning, and family coping on parent stress in families with a child with Smith-Magenis syndrome. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26(4), 391-401. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-014-9367-3]
  • Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. SAGE Publications. [https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412985772]
  • Oh, K. J. & Kim, Y. A. (2009). Child Behavior Checklist Preschool 1.5-5. (Co.) Huno.
  • Oh, K. J. & Kim, Y. A. (2010). ASEBA Manual for Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. Huno.
  • Oh, K. J., Lee, H. R., Hong, G. H. & Ha, E. H., (1997). Korea-Child Behavior Checklist. Jungang-Jukseong.
  • Park, H. S. & Lee, J. M. (2016). A Validation Study of Korean Version of PANAS-Revised. Korean Journal of Psychology: General 35(4), 617-641. [https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2016.]
  • Park, J., Shin, Y., Lee, M., Chun, Y. J. & Lee, K. S. (2015). Standardization Study for the Korean Version of Parenting Relationship Questionnaire-Children. Family and Environment Research, 53(2), 169-177. [https://doi.org/10.6115/fer.2015.013]
  • Peters, L., Sunderland, M., Andrews, G., Rapee, R. M., & Mattick, R. P. (2012). Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: The SIAS-6 and the SPS-6. Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 66-76. [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024544]
  • Perez Algorta, G., MacPherson, H. A., Youngstrom, E. A., Belt, C. C., Arnold, L. E., Frazier, T. W., Gerry Taylor, H., Birmaher, B., McCue Horwitz, S., Findling, R. L., & Fristad, M. A. (2018). Parenting stress among caregivers of children with bipolar spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(sup1), S306-S320. [https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1280805]
  • Putnick, D. L., Bornstein, M. H., Hendricks, C., Painter, K. M., Suwalsky, J. T. D., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 752-762. [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013177]
  • Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(1), 119-125. [https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:1<119::AID-JCLP2270380118>3.0.CO;2-I]
  • Rice, F. P., & Dolgin, K. G. (2005). The adolescent: Development, relationships and culture. Pearson Education New Zealand.
  • Riva Crugnola, C., Ierardi, E., Ferro, V., Gallucci, M., Parodi, C., & Astengo, M. (2016). Mother-infant emotion regulation at three months: The role of maternal anxiety, depression and parenting stress. Psychopathology, 49(4), 285-294. [https://doi.org/10.1159/000446811]
  • Rochelle, T. L., & Cheng, H. T. (2016). Parenting practices and child behaviour problems in hong kong: Knowledge of effective parenting strategies, parenting stress, and child-rearing ideologies. Child Indicators Research, 9(1), 155-171. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-015-9311-9]
  • Roisman, G. I., Masten, A. S., Coatsworth, J. D., & Tellegen, A. (2004). Salient and emerging developmental tasks in the transition to adulthood. Child Development, 75(1), 123-133. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00658.x]
  • Rousseau, S., Grietens, H., Vanderfaeillie, J., Hoppenbrouwers, K., Wiersema, J. R., & Van Leeuwen, K. (2013). Parenting stress and dimensions of parenting behavior: cross-sectional and longitudinal links with adolescents’ somatization. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 46(3), 243-270. [https://doi.org/10.2190/PM.46.3.b]
  • Seo, D. G., Lee, S., Kim, J. N., Choi, S., Chae, J., Jung, S., Cho, S. K., Kim, M. K. & Chad, Ebesutani. (2019). Psychometric Methods and Validation of Short Form for the Psychological Scale: Based on the Korean dysfunctional depression scale. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 38(1), 75-102. [https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2019.]
  • Seo, J. G., & Park, S. P. (2015). Validation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and GAD-2 in patients with migraine. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 16(1), 97. [https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-015-0583-8]
  • Sheras, P. L., Konold, T. R., & Abidin, R. R. (1998). SIPA: Stress index for parents of adolescents. PAR.
  • Silinskas, G., Kiuru, N., Aunola, K., Metsäpelto, R. L., Lerkkanen, M. K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2020). Maternal affection moderates the associations between parenting stress and early adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing behavior. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 40(2), 221-248. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431619833490]
  • Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Anderson, K. G. (2000). On the sins of short-form development. Psychological Assessment, 12(1), 102-111. [https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.12.1.102]
  • Spitzer, R.L, Kroenke, K., Williams, J.B.W., Lowe, B. (2006). A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder. American Medical Association, 166(10), 1092-1097. [https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092]
  • Stanton, J. M., Sinar, E. F., Balzer, W. K., & Smith, P. C. (2002). Issues and strategies for reducing the length of self-report scales. Personnel Psychology, 55(1), 167-194. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2002.tb00108.x]
  • Steeger, C. M., Gondoli, D. M., & Morrissey, R. A. (2013). Maternal avoidant coping mediates the effect of parenting stress on depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(7), 952-961. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9657-2]
  • Steensma, T. D., Kreukels, B. P., de Vries, A. L., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2013). Gender identity development in adolescence. Hormones and Behavior, 64(2), 288-297. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.02.020]
  • Sturm, A., Kuhfeld, M., Kasari, C., & McCracken, J. T. (2017). Development and validation of an item response theory-based social responsiveness scale short form. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(9), 1053-1061. [https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12731]
  • Tan, S., & Rey, J. (2005). Depression in the young, parental depression and parenting stress. Australasian Psychiatry, 13(1), 76-79. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1665.2004.02155.x]
  • Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 1-10. [https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02291170]
  • van Oort, F. V., , A., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Huizink, A. C. (2010). Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: The TRAILS study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(6), 483-491. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-009-0058-z]
  • Viner, R. M. (2008). Transition of care from paediatric to adult services: one part of improved health services for adolescents. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93(2), 160-163. [https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2006.103721]
  • Ware, E. W., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Medical Care, 20(6), 473-483. [https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002]
  • Wiener, J., Biondic, D., Grimbos, T., & Herbert, M. (2016). Parenting stress of parents of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(3), 561-574. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0050-7]
  • Woo, C. Y.., Park, A. C. & Jeong, H. H., (2010). The Structural Relationship among Human Relations, Stress, Depression and Suicidal Ideation of Adolescents by genders and Level of school. The Korean Journal of Education Psychology, 24(1), 19-38.
  • Yoo, I. Y. (2005). Parenting Stress of Adolescent Children. Korean Parent-Child Health Journal, 8(1), 17-22. [https://doi.org/OAK-2005-02186]