Korean Journal of Psychology : General
[ Regular issue ]
The Korean Journal of Psychology: General - Vol. 39, No. 2, pp.205-247
ISSN: 1229-067X (Print)
Print publication date 25 Jun 2020
Received 19 Feb 2020 Accepted 17 Apr 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2020.

한국인의 외로움(loneliness): 개념적 정의와 측정에 관한 고찰

서영석 ; 안수정1) ; 김현진2) ; 고세인3)
1)연세대학교 교육학과, 박사과정생 tiaresoo@yonsei.ac.kr
2)연세대학교 교육학과, 졸업생 portmania@naver.com
3)연세대학교 교육학과, 석사과정생 siko4003@gmail.com
Review on the Conceptual Definition and Measurement of Loneliness Experienced among Koreans
Young Seok Seo ; Soo Jung An1) ; Hyun Jin Kim2) ; Sein Ko3)
1)Department of Education, Graduate School, Yonsei University
2)Department of Education, Graduate School, Yonsei University
3)Department of Education, Graduate School, Yonsei University

Correspondence to: 서영석, 연세대학교 교육학부, 교수, 서울특별시 서대문구 연세로 50 Tel: 02-2123-6171, E-mail: seox0004@yonsei.ac.kr


외로움이 사회적인 문제로 대두되면서 국가 차원에서 국민들의 외로움에 개입하는 나라들이 증가하고 있다. 한편, 외로움에 대한 개념적 합의가 이루어지지 않았고 유사 개념들과 외로움이 서로 혼용되고 있는 상황에서 외로움 관련 연구들은 꾸준히 증가하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 외로움에 대한 주요 이론적 접근과 관련 선행연구 및 문헌들을 고찰함으로써, 외로움의 본질적인 요소들을 이해하고 한국인들이 경험하는 독특한 외로움을 발견하고, 이를 통해 기존에 사용되고 있는 외로움 척도들을 비판적으로 고찰하고자 하였다. 우선, 본 연구에서는 외로움에 대한 주요 이론적 관점(사회적 욕구 관점, 인지적 접근, 실존적-현상론적 접근, 상호영향론적 관점)을 통합적으로 고찰하였고, 이를 통해 외로움이 관계적 결핍, 주관적 평가, 고통스러운 정서, 맥락적 요소 등으로 구성된다는 것을 확인하였다. 또한 연구자들은 선택과 인식이라는 두 차원을 기준으로 외로움이 고독, 고립, 소외, 관계 불만족 등 유사 개념들과 개념적으로 구분되는 것으로 판단하였다. 뿐만 아니라 한국인들은 집단에 대한 외로움, 타인지향적 외로움, 융합에서의 외로움을 더 많이 더 강하게 경험하고 있음을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 기존에 개발되어 사용되고 있는 외로움 척도들을 비판적으로 분석하였다.


As loneliness has emerged as a social issue, more countries are intervening in the loneliness of their people at the national level. Meanwhile, studies have been steadily increasing in a situation where no conceptual consensus has been reached on loneliness, and similar concepts are used conceptually undifferentiated. The purpose of this study is to examine the major theories of loneliness, to examine the unique loneliness that Koreans experience, and to review the most used measures of loneliness. First, theoretical perspectives (social needs, cognitive, existential-phenomenological, and interactionistic approach) were integrally examined, confirming that loneliness consists of relational deficiencies, subjective assessment, painful emotions, and contextual factors. Second, loneliness is conceptually distinct from solitude, isolation, alienation, and dissatisfaction with relationships by two dimensions of choice and perception. Third, Koreans are more likely to experience collective, other-oriented, and fusional loneliness. Based on these results, we critically analyzed the measures of loneliness.


loneliness, Koreans, conceptual definition, measurement


외로움, 한국인, 개념적 정의, 측정


  • Allen, J. P., Moore, C., Kuperminc, G., & Bell, K. (1998). Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 69(5), 1406-1419. [https://doi.org/10.2307/1132274]
  • An, Y. J. (2007). A study on family therapy of Murray Bowen. Unpublished master’s degree dissertation, University of Sang Myung, Seoul.
  • Andersson, L. (1998). Loneliness research and interventions: a review of the literature. Aging & Mental health, 2(4), 264-274. [https://doi.org/10.1080/13607869856506]
  • Asghar, A. & Iqbal, N. (2019). Loneliness matters: a theoretical review of prevalence in adulthood. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 7(1), 41-47. [https://doi.org/10.15640/jpbs.v7n1a5]
  • Asher, S. R., Hymel, S., & Renshaw, P. D. (1984). Loneliness in children. Child Development, 55(4), 1456-1464. [https://doi.org/10.2307/1130015]
  • Bak, J. Y. (2016. Feb 26). I’m alone and lonely, I’m afraid we’re together. Kyunghang news. Retrieved from http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201602262109315&code=940100, .
  • Bauman, Z. (2010). 44 Letters from the liquid modern world. CB: Polity Press.
  • Benson, M. J., Larson, J., Wilson, S. M., & Demo, D. H. (1993). Family of origin influences on late adolescent romantic relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 663-672. [https://doi.org/10.2307/353347]
  • Bowen, M. (1976). Theory in the practice of psychotherapy. Family Therapy: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 2-90.
  • Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger. (Vol. 2.). New York: Basic Books.
  • Brown, P., Levinson, S. C., & Levionson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage(vol. 4). UK: Cambridge University Press. [https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085]
  • Buz, J., & Pérez-Arechaederra, D. (2014). Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the 11-item de Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 26(9), 1553-1564. [https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610214000507]
  • Buchholz, E. S. (1997). The call of solitude: Alonetime in a world of attachment. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Berntson, G. G., Ernst, J. M., Gibbs, A. C., Stickgold, R., & Hobson, J. A. (2002). Do lonely days invade the nights? Potential social modulation of sleep efficiency. Psychological Science, 13(4), 384-387. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2002.00469.x]
  • Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me sad: 5-year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. Psychology Aging, 25(2), 453-463. [https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017216]
  • Cacioppo, S., Grippo, A. J., London, S., Goossens, L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2015). Loneliness: Clinical import and interventions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 238-249. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615570616]
  • Choi, B. G., & Lim, J. Y. (1999). The influence of peer victimization on childrens loneliness and anxiety. Family and Environment Research, 37(5), 111-121.
  • Choi, E. S., & Kim, W. I. (2017). The madiating effect of emotional stability in the relationship between smart-phone addiction and interpersonal satisfaction of middle school students. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 24(4), 259-279. [https://doi.org/10.21509/KJYS.2017.]
  • Choi, H. Y., & Lee, D. H. (2016). In aloneness, the difference between solitude and loneliness. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 23(12), 77-103. [https://doi.org/10.21509/KJYS.2016.]
  • Choi, I. K., & Kim, H. J. (2018). Improving validity of sex role learning index (SERLI): Focusing on ecological and cultural validity. Early Childhood Education and Care, 13(4), 5-24. [https://doi.org/10.16978/ecec.2018.13.4.001]
  • Choi, M. K. (2006). The relations of children’s peer victimization, self-esteem, and loneliness Korean Journal of Child Studies, 27(4), 133-145.
  • Choi, S. C. (1993). The nature of Korean selfhood: A cultural psychological perspective. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 7(2), 24-33.
  • Choi, S. C., & Choi, I. J. (2002). The effects of Korean cultural psychological characteristics on coping styles, stress, and life satisfaction: Centering around Cheong and weness. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 14(1), 55-71.
  • Choi, S. C., Kim, J. Y., & Kim, K. B. (2000). The structural relationship among Cheong(情), and its actions and functions. The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 14(1), 203-222.
  • Choi, S. C., & Kim, K. B. (2011). Cultural psychology: Understanding Korean people and culture. Paju: Knowledge Company.
  • Choi, S. C., & Lee, J. J. (1999). The psychological interior and social-cultural functions of Korean Cheong(情). The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 13(1), 219-234.
  • Choi, W. K., & Kim, J. S. (2014). The relationship between college students’ life stress and suicidal ideation: The mediating effects of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation and frustrated interpersonal needs. The Korea Journal of Youth Counseling, 22(1), 1-25. [https://doi.org/10.35151/kyci.2014.22.1.001]
  • Chung, Y. J., & Kim, K. W. (2006). The influence having peer relationships and affectionate relationships with the mother had on children’s loneliness. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 18(1), 217-232.
  • Cornwell, E. Y., & Waite, L. J. (2009). Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults. Journal of Health Social Behavior, 50(1), 31-48. [https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650905000103]
  • de Jong-Gierveld, J., & Kamphuis, F. (1985). The development of a Rasch-type loneliness scale. Applied Psychological Measurement, 9(3), 289-299. [https://doi.org/10.1177/014662168500900307]
  • de Jong-Gierveld, J., & Van Tilburg, T. (1999). Living arrangements of older adults in the Netherlands and Italy: Coresidence values and behaviour and their consequences for loneliness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 14(1), 1-24. [https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006600825693]
  • de Jong-Gierveld, J., van Tilburg, T. G., & Dykstra, P. A. (2006). Loneliness and social isolation. In D. Perlman & A. Vangelisti (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of personal relationships. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Detrixhe, J. J., Samstag, L. W., Penn, L. S., & Wong, P. S. (2014). A lonely idea: Solitude's separation from psychological research and theory. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 50(3), 310-331. [https://doi.org/10.1080/00107530.2014.897853]
  • DiTommaso, E., Brannen, C., & Best, L. A. (2004). Measurement and validity characteristics of the short version of the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(1), 99-119. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164403258450]
  • DiTommaso, E., & Spinner, B. (1993). The development and initial validation of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA). Personality and Individual Differences, 14(1), 127-134. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90182-3]
  • Durak, M., & Senol-Durak, E. (2010). Psychometric qualities of the UCLA loneliness scale-version 3 as applied in a Turkish culture. Educational Gerontology, 36(10-11), 988-1007. [https://doi.org/10.1080/03601271003756628]
  • Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: A study in sociology. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press.
  • Elphinstone, B. (2018). Identification of a Suitable Short‐form of the UCLA‐Loneliness Scale. Australian Psychologist, 53(2), 107-115. [https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12285]
  • Ernst, J. M., & Cacioppo, J. L. (1999). Lonely hearts: Psychological perspectives on loneliness. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8(1), 1-22. [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849(99)80008-0]
  • Fromm-Reichmann, F. (1980). Loneliness. In J. Hartog, J. R. Audy, & Y. A. Cohen (Eds.), The anatomy of loneliness. New York: International Universities Press.
  • Galanaki, E. P. (2004). Are children able to distinguish among the concepts of aloneness, loneliness, and solitude?. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(5), 435-443. [https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000153]
  • Galanaki, E. P., Mylonas, K., & Vogiatzoglou, P. S. (2015). Evalouating voluntary aloneness in childhood: Initial validation of the Children’s Solitude Scale. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12(6), 688-700. [https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2015.1071253]
  • Galanaki, E. P., & Vassilopoulou, H. D. (2007). Teachers and children’s loneliness: A review of the literature and educational implications. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(4), 455-475. [https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03173466]
  • Goodwin, R., Cook, O., & Yung, Y. (2001). Loneliness and life satisfaction among three cultural groups. Personal Relationships, 8(2), 225-230. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2001.tb00037.x]
  • Goossens, L., & Beyers, W. (2002). Comparing measures of childhood loneliness: Internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(2), 252-262. [https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3102_10]
  • Han, M., Ryu, S. A., & Kim, K. M. (2013). The moderation effect of cultural self-construal on a social comparison and happiness. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 19(4), 577-597.
  • Hawkley, L. C., Gu, Y., Luo, Y. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2012). The mental representation of social connections: Generalizability extended to Beijing adults. PloS one, 7(9), e44065. [https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044065]
  • Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(6), 695-718. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.002]
  • Hofstede, G. (1995). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work related values(Vol. 5). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. 427-454.
  • Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T., & Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 227-237. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614568352]
  • Horney, K. (1991). Neurosis and human growth: The struggle for self-realization. New York: Norton.
  • Horowitz, L. M., French, R. D. S., Anderson, C. A. (1982). The prototype of a lonely person. In L. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: Results from two population-based studies. Research on Aging, 26(6), 655-672. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027504268574]
  • Hur, J. H., & Kim, J. S. (2014). Development and validation of the loneliness scale for adolescents(LSA). Korean Journal of Counseling, 15(4), 1549-1570. [https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.15.4.201408.1549]
  • Hymel, S., & Rubin, K. H. (1985). Children with peer relationship and social skills problems: Conceptual, methodological, and developmental issues. In G. J. Whitehurst (Ed.), Annals of Child Development. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Jin, E. J., & Hwang S. S. H. (2019). The validity of the Korean-UCLA loneliness scale version 3. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 26(10), 53-80. [https://doi.org/10.21509/KJYS.2019.]
  • Jung, T. Y. (2010). Historical and cultural analyses of collective features of Korean society. The Korean Journal fo Social and Personality Psychology, 24(3), 53-76. [https://doi.org/10.21193/kjspp.2010.24.3.004]
  • Keeler, W. (1983). Shame and stage fright in Java. Ethos, 11(3), 152-165. [https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.1983.11.3.02a00040]
  • Killeen, C. (1998). Loneliness: An epidemic in modern society. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(4), 762-770. [https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00703.x]
  • Kim, D. H. (2017). A longitudinal study on risk and protective factors influencing internet use time of early adolescents. Journal of Youth Welfare, 19(2), 137-157. [https://doi.org/10.19034/KAYW.2017.19.2.06]
  • Kim, H. S., & Ohtake, F. (2014). Status race and happiness: What experimental surveys tell us. (No. 2014-01). Korea Development Institute Policy Study.
  • Kim, I. H. (1995). Phenomenological approach on Loneliness of the elderly. The Korean Nurse, 34(3), 60-62.
  • Kim, J. H., & Kang, S. H. (1994). A Theoretical review on loneliness. The Institute of Living Culture Sunshin Women’s University, 8, 233-253.
  • Kim, J. Y. (2019. Dec 25). Solitary death is due to social isolation. it should be called isolated death. International press. Retrieved from http://www.kookje.co.kr/news2011/asp/newsbody.asp?code=0300&key=20191226.22008012237, .
  • Kim, J. Y. (2003). A study on face: preparation for the empirical research. Korean Journal of Resources Development, 5(2), 63-81.
  • Kim, J. Y., & Oh, K. J. (2011). The effect of parental overprotection on depression: The mediation effect of ego-resilience according to gender. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30(3), 647-661. [https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2011.30.3.002]
  • Kim, K. H., & Kim, J. H. (1989). Korea UCLA loneliness scale. Journal of Student Guidance, 16, 13-30.
  • Kim, K. W., & Lee, S. S. (2002). The relationship between the child’s perception of the parent’s child-rearing attitudes and loneliness. Sook-Myung Women’s University Child Study Center, 16(1), 33-64.
  • Kim, O., Byeon, Y. S., Kim, J. H., Endo, E., Akahoshi, M., & Ogasawara, H. (2009). Loneliness, depression and health status of the institutionalized elderly in Korea and Japan. Asian Nursing Research, 3(2), 63-70. [https://doi.org/10.1016/S1976-1317(09)60017-7]
  • Kim, O. S. (1997). Reliability and validity test. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 27(4), 871-879. [https://doi.org/10.4040/jnas.1997.27.4.871]
  • Kim, S. H., & Park, S. M. (2015). The qualitative study on the leaving home process of young adult children and sense of crisis experienced by midlife mothers. Journal of Family and Counseling, 5(1), 75-97.
  • Kim, U., & Choi, S. H. (1994). Individualism, collectivism, and child development: A Korean perspective. In P. Greenfield & R. R. Cocking(Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kim, U., Park, Y. S., & Park, D. H. (2000). The challenge of cross-cultural psychology: The role of the indigenous psychologies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(1), 63-75. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031001006]
  • Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Matsumoto, H. (1995). Culture, self and emotion: A cultural perspective on self conscious emotions. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-counscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (p. 439-464). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Kitayama, S., Park, H. (2007). Cultural shaping of self, emotion, and well-being: How does it work? Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 202-222. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00016.x]
  • Koh, E. Y., Choi, Y. Y., Choi, M. Y., Park, S. H., & Seo, Y. S. (2014). The relationships among loneliness, interpersonal sensitivity, and facebook addiction. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 26(3), 713-738.
  • Korean Clinical Psychology Association (2018). Korea Loneliness Index. Retrieved from http://www.kcp.or.kr/user/kcp660pm/list.asp?listType=2, .
  • Kressel, G. M. (1992). Shame and gender. Anthropological Quarterly, 65(1), 34-46. [https://doi.org/10.2307/3318096]
  • Kwon, H. W., & Kwon, K. D. (2018). The determinants of intragroup conflicts in public sector organizations: Focusing on the network effects of college alumni and birthplace, gender similarity. Journal of Governance Studies, 13(2), 97-124. [https://doi.org/10.16973/jgs.2018.13.2.004]
  • Larson, R., & Lee, M. (1996). The capacity to be alone as a stress buffer. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136(1), 5-16. [https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1996.9923024]
  • Lasgaard, M. (2007). Reliability and validity of the Danish version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(7), 1359-1366. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.013]
  • Leary, M. R., Kelly, K. M., Cottrell, C. A., & Schreindorfer, L. S. (2007). Individual differences in the need to belong: Mapping the nomological network. Unpublished manuscript, Duke University.
  • Lee, H. Y., Lee, J. A., & Oh, K. S. (2015). Validation of the Korean version of interpersonal needs questionnaire(K-INQ) for older adults. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(1), 291-312. [https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2015.34.1.014]
  • Lee, I. S., & Choi, H. R. (2005). Assessment of shame and its relationship with maternal attachment, hypersensitive narcissism and loneliness. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 17(3), 651-670.
  • Lee, J. S. (2018. May 4). Poor man have a hard time going to the next world. Hankyurea news. Retrieved from http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/society_general/843377.html, .
  • Lee, S. S. (2000). A study on the relationship between married adults level of self differentiation and their life satisfaction. Journal of Family Relations, 5(1), 23-43.
  • Lee, S. Y., & Park, K. H. (2018). The influence of self-construal on body satisfaction and emotion in situations with appearance-related social comparisons. The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 32(2), 1-22. [https://doi.org/10.21193/kjspp.2018.32.2.001]
  • Lee, U. Y., & Min, Y. K. (2018). Prototype analyses of the concepts of loneliness: A case study of early adulthood. Journal of Social Science, 29(2), 249-264. [https://doi.org/10.16881/jss.2018.]
  • Lee, U. Y., Min, Y. K., & Rhee, Y. E. (2017). Difference between loneliness in late adolescence and adulthood: focus on validation of social and emotional loneliness scale for adults(SELSA-S). Journal of Social Science, 28(2), 219-235. [https://doi.org/10.16881/jss.2017.]
  • Leigh-Hunt, N., Bagguley, D., Bash, K., Turner, V., Turnbull, S., Valtorta, N., & Caan, W. (2017). An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public Health, 152, 157-171. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2017.07.035]
  • Levine, M. P. (2012). Loneliness and eating disorders. The Journal of Psychology, 146(1-2), 243-257. [https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2011.606435]
  • Lim, N. Y., & Suh, E. M. (2011). Moderating effect of shame on the relationship between face-consciousness and loneliness. The Korean Psychological Association Proceeding book, 2011(1), 218-218.
  • Maes, M., Wang, J. M., van den Noortgate, W., & Goossens, L. (2015). Loneliness and attitudes toward being alone in Belgian and Chinese adolescents: Examining measurement invariance. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(5), 1408-1415. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0336-y]
  • Marangoni, C., & Ickes, W. (1989). Loneliness: A theoretical review with implications for measurement. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 6(1), 93-128. [https://doi.org/10.1177/026540758900600107]
  • Marcoen, A., & Goossens, L. (1993). Loneliness, attitude toward aloneness, and solitude-Age differences and developmental significance during adolescence. Journal of Gerontology, 48(4), 157-171.
  • Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224]
  • Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. K. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), 420-430. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610375557]
  • McGraw, J. G. (1995). Loneliness, its nature and forms: An existential perspective. Man and World, 28(1), 43-64. [https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01278458]
  • McWhirter, B. T. (1990). Loneliness: A review of current literature, with implications for counseling and research. Journal of Counseling Development, 68(4), 417-422. [https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1990.tb02521.x]
  • Mikulincer, M., & Segal, J. (1990). A multidimensional analysis of the experience of loneliness. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7(2), 209-230. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407590072004]
  • Moustakas, C. E. (1961). Loneliness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Nichols, M. P. (2011). The essentials of family therapy. Boston, MA: Person Education.
  • Nilsson, B., Lindstrom, U. A., & Naden, D. (2006). Is loneliness a psychological dysfunction? A literary study of the phenomenon of loneliness. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 20(1), 93-101. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2006.00386.x]
  • OECD Better Life Index (2019). Retrieved from http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/, .
  • Oh, S. W., & Seo, S. G. (2016). The effect of perfectionistic self-presentation on loneliness: focusing on social support, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and satisfaction of need for relatedness. The Korea Journal of Youth Counseling, 24(2), 1-16. [https://doi.org/10.35151/kyci.2016.24.2.001]
  • Oshagan, H., & Allen, R. L. (1992). Three Loneliness Scales: An Assessment of Their Measurement Properties. Journal of Personality Assessment, 59(2), 380-409. [https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5902_13]
  • Park, C. Y., Hur, T. K., & Choi, S. C. (2001). Psychological sub-categorization of “In-group”: Weness versus in-the-same- group. The Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 21(1), 25-44.
  • Park, I. J., & Woo, M. J. (2001). The relationships between child bonding type in early stages, family functioning, and children’s loneliness. Korean Journal of Family Welfare, 6(2), 25-43.
  • Park, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Hyun, M. H. (2016). The relationship between loneliness, spirituality and depression: Focused on Korean immigrant women in Vietnam. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 21(2), 339-356. [https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2016.21.2.003]
  • Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. C. (2004). Interpersonal relationship and delinquent behavior among adolescents: With specific focus on parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and relationship with friends. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 10(4), 87-115.
  • Park, Y. S., Kim, C. U. & Chung, K. S. (2004). Longitudinal analysis of the influence of parent-child relationship on adolescents’ academic achievement: With specific focus on the mediating role of self-efficacy and achievement motivation. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 10(3), 37-59.
  • Park, Y., Baik, S. Y., Kim, H. S., & Lee, S. H. (2017). The influence of traditional culture and the interpersonal psychological theory on suicide research in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 14(6), 713-718. [https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.6.713]
  • Parkhurst, J. T., & Hopmeyer, A. (1999). Developmental change in the sources of loneliness in childhood and adolescence: Constructing a theoretical model. In K. J. Rotenberg & S. Hymel (Eds.), Loneliness in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551888.004]
  • Paque, K., Bastiaens, H., Van Bogaert, P., & Dilles, T. (2018). Living in a nursing home: a phenomenological study exploring residents’ loneliness and other feelings. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 32(4), 1477-1484. [https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12599]
  • Peplau, L. A., Miceli, M., & Morasch, B. (1982). Loneliness and self-evaluation. In L. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Perlman, D., & Peplau, L. A. (1981). Toward a social psychology of loneliness. In S. Duck & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Personal relationships in disorder. London: Academic Press.
  • Perlman, D., & Peplau, L. A. (1982). Theoretical approaches to loneliness. In L. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Pressman, S. D., Cohen, S., Miller, G. E., Barkin, A., Rabin, B. S., & Treanor, J. J. (2005). Loneliness, social network size, and immune response to influenza vaccination in college freshmen. Health Psychology, 24(3), 297-306. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.3.297]
  • Qualter, P., Vanhalst, J., Harris, R., Van Roekel, E., Lodder, G., Bangee, M., Maes, M., & Verhagen, M. (2015). Loneliness across the life span. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 250-264. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615568999]
  • Riesman, D. (1969). The lonely crowd: A study of the changing American character. Yale University Press.
  • Rokach, A. (1990). Surviving and coping with loneliness. The Journal of Psychology, 124(1), 39-54. [https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1990.10543204]
  • Rokach, A., Lackovic-Grgin, K., Penezic, Z., & Soric, I. (2000). The effects of culture on the causes of loneliness. Psychology, 37(3-4), 6-20.
  • Rosaldo, M. Z. (1983). The shame of headhunters and the autonomy of self. Ethos, 11(3), 135-151. [https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.1983.11.3.02a00030]
  • Rubenstein, C., & Shaver, P. (1982). The experience of loneliness. In L. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Russell, D. W. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 20-40. [https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2]
  • Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 472-480. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.3.472]
  • Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Ferguson, M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(3), 290-294. [https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4203_11]
  • Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069]
  • Ryle, Gilbert. (1984). The concept of mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Seeman, M. (1972). Alienation and engagement. In A. Campbell & P. E. Converce (Eds.), The Human meaning of social change. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Segal, J. M. (1991). Agency and alienation: a theory of human presence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Seo, Y. S. (2003). Effects of individual-level cultural values on the perceptions of expressions of emotions in counseling. Korean Journal of Counseling, 4(2), 329-345.
  • Seo, Y. S. (2010). Individualism, collectivism, client expression, and counselor effectiveness among South Korean international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(6), 824-847. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000009359947]
  • Sermat, V. (1980). Some situational and personality correlates of loneliness. In J. Hartog, J. R. Audy, & Y. A. Cohen (Eds.), The anatomy of loneliness. New York: International Universities Press.
  • Shaver, P., & Rubenstein, C. (1980). Childhood attachment experience and adult loneliness. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Shadish, W., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Shearer, R., & Davidhizar, R. (1994). It can be never be the way it was: Helping elderly women adjust to change and loss. Home Health Care Nurse, 12(4), 60-65. [https://doi.org/10.1097/00004045-199407000-00010]
  • Shin, K. E. (2018). Lonely people benefit more from prosocial spending. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 24(1), 79-99. [https://doi.org/10.20406/kjcs.2018.]
  • Sim, H. J. (2017, Aug 28). 7 out of 10 Koreans “lonely”...The lower the income, the greater the loneliness. Seoul Economy. Retrieved from https://www.sedaily.com/NewsView/1OJXD7AMWG, .
  • Simmons, C. M., Klopf, D. W., & Park, M. S. (1991). Loneliness among Korean and American university students. Psychological Reports, 68(3), 754-754. [https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1991.68.3.754]
  • So, E. H., & Shin, H. C. (2011). The influence of Gratitude on subjective well-being: Mediating effects of basic psychological needs satisfaction in interpersonal relationships. Korea Journal of Counseling, 12(1), 159-175. [https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.12.1.201103.159]
  • Sok, S. Y., & Yoon, J. L. (1987). Managing loneliness: A program for adolescents. The Institute of Living Culture, 20(1), 35-55.
  • Sønderby, L. C., & Wagoner, B. (2013). Loneliness: an integrative approach. Journal of Integrated Social Sciences, 3(1), 1-29.
  • Spencer-Rodgers, J., Boucher, H. C., Mori, S. C., Wang, L., & Peng, K. (2009). The dialectical self-concept: Contradiction, change, and holism in East Asian cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(1), 29-44. [https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208325772]
  • Stein, J. Y., & Tuval-Mashiach, R. (2015). The social construction of loneliness: An integrative conceptualization. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 28(3), 210-227. [https://doi.org/10.1080/10720537.2014.911129]
  • Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Lambert, N. M., Crescioni, A. W., DeWall, C. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Alone and without purpose: Life loses meaning following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 686-694. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.03.007]
  • Storr, A. (1988). Solitude: A return to the self. New York: Free Press.
  • Suh, E. M., & Koo, J. (2008). Comparing subjective well-being across cultures and nations. In E. D. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being. Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.
  • Terrell-Deutsch, B. (1999). The conceptualization and measurement of childhood loneliness. In K. J. Rotenberg & S. Hymel (Eds.), Loneliness in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551888.002]
  • The National Institute of Korean Language (1999). Standard Korean Language dictionary. Seoul: Dusan Donga.
  • Tzouvara, V., Papadopoulos, C., & Randhawa, G. (2015). A narrative review of the theoretical foundations of loneliness. British Journal of Community Nursing, 20(7), 329-334. [https://doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2015.20.7.329]
  • Vanhalst, J., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., Van Petegem, S., Weeks, M. S., & Asher, S. R. (2015). Why do the lonely stay lonely? Chronically lonely adolescents’ attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(5), 932-948. [https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000051]
  • Vincenzi, H., & Grabosky, F. (1987). Measuring the emotional/social aspects of loneliness and isolation. Journal of Social Behavior Personality, 2(2), 257-270.
  • Wang, B., & Dong, X. (2018). The association between personality and loneliness: Findings from a community-dwelling Chinese aging population. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, 4, 1-9. [https://doi.org/10.1177/2333721418778181]
  • Wei, M., Russell, D. W., & Zakalik, R. A. (2005). Adult attachment, social self-efficacy, self-disclosure, loneliness, and subsequent depression for freshman college students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4), 602-614. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.52.4.602]
  • Weiss, R. S. (1973). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.
  • Winnicott, D. W. (1958). The Capacity to be Alone. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39, 416-420.
  • Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential Psychotheraphy. New York: Basic Books.
  • Yang, B., & Clum, G. A. (1994). Life stress, social support, and problem-solving skills predictive of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and suicide ideation in an Asian student population: A test of a model. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 24(2), 127-139.
  • Yang, H. W. (2018). Peace: living with me. Christian Home and Family Life Association in Korea, 65, 61-65.
  • Yang, S., & Rosenblatt, P. C. (2001). Shame in Korean families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 32(3), 361-375. [https://doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.32.3.361]
  • You, M. B., & Shim, H. I. (2013). A study on the cultural characteristics of Korean society: discovering its categories using the cultural consensus model. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 19(3), 457-485.
  • Younger, J. B. (1995). The alienation of the sufferer. Advances in Nursing Science, 17(4), 53-72. [https://doi.org/10.1097/00012272-199506000-00006]
  • Zhou, X. (2018). A Review of researches. Workplace loneliness. Psychology, 9(5), 1005-1022. [https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2018.95064]